Thursday, November 28, 2019
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Ostomy Essays Ostomy Essay Ostomy Essay November 27, 2007 My Experience Wearing an Ostomy Bag At the beginning of this assignment my first reaction was to not wear the ostomy bag and write a paper on why I did not want to wear it. But when I sat down and thought about I could not think of a single good reason why not to wear it. Working in nursing homes and hospitals you take care of a lot of patients with ostomy bags and you wonder what life would be like if that were you but just like that the thought is gone and you canÃ¢â¬â¢t imagine it. Cutting out the stoma size on the sticky paper was harder than I thought it would be, the paper is tuff and hard to cut in a straight circle. The chocolate pudding and applesauce that was inserted into the bag helped make the experience even more realistic. After having my ostomy bag placed on by one of our instructors I kind of forgot about it. Luckily I had on a large white shirt so nobody could see the imprint of the bag. Once I left school I had some errands to take care of and decided that I would just have to go to the grocery store with the bag in place. While walking threw the grocery store I noticed that the bag had a little gas and was starting to grow. Buy the time I reached the check out counter my white shirt was covered in chocolate and applesauce. Wearing the ostomy bag was a good learning experience. I feel that all nursing students should have to wear one. It gives you the opportunity to walk in your patients shoes. The next time I have a patient with an ostomy bag or any type of assistive device, I will be able to reflect back on my experience and have more empathy for what the patient is going threw.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Mousetrap by Agatha Christie - Essay Example When the culprit is caught, everyone is shocked and relieved. The play comes to an end with the Ralstons exchanging anniversary gifts. There are eight inhabitants of Monkswell Manor. There are Mollie and Giles Ralston who are the hosts. Christopher Wren is the most suspicious one since he behaves in a peculiar manner. Mrs Boyle is an old woman who is never pleased by anything and only talks to complain about something or the other. Her presence is not appreciated by anybody and she is later killed in the hotel. Mr Paravicini is a foreigner. Major Metcalf has retired from army and later we find out is a policeman in disguise. Miss Casewell is an odd woman who seems to have had a difficult childhood. She turns out to be the sister of the escaped murderer. The last guest is Detective Sergeant Trotter who is not actually a man of law but one defying it. He is, in fact, the killer and Miss CasewellÃ¢â¬â¢s brother. Later in the play we find out that Trottor - also called Georgie - is the man behind the murders. His awful childhood led him to first killing Mrs Lyon who did not take care of him or his siblings, resulting in the death of one of them. Then he strangles Mrs Boyle since she sent them under Mrs LyonÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility. He tries to kill Mrs Mollie Ralston whose help he had asked for but not received. He is not successful in his attempt but it is clear that despite the time passed, Georgie still carried the grudge with him. It affected him mentally till he took matters in his own hands to take revenge, planning deaths of the people who he thought did him wrong. Agatha Christie has a great way with words but speaking them out loud makes quite a difference too. Mrs Boyle always gives off the air of a woman unimpressed with the world. Mollie has these naive comments to say. Miss Casewell slips up at times, giving off the look of someone always occupied with something else. All the characters have a certain way of
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Nursing Health Care Fair - Essay Example Owing to such attributes related to such a mission, how does the hospital management ensure attainment of the mission through incorporating both the staff and systems? The second question relates to the Hospital Rehab Project. For over a long duration, patients attending rehab programs have done so against their will leading to engagement of the same practices once these victims get through with the rehab programs. Consequently, emergencies for rehab services may be sought at any period during the day. Stoughton Hospital hours of operations for the rehab are 8.00 am Ã¢â¬â 4.00 pm on weekdays while on the weekends assumes full closure. How effective, therefore, is the rehab project in ensuring follow-up for rehab victims as well as ensuring dealing with concerns relating to emergencies? Lastly, Stoughton Hospital is accredited as a not for profit institution an indication that the focus of operations aims at delivering clinical services without concern for profits. The current heal thcare system is characterized by rising costs of health services that result from increased costs of labor among other essentials in providing sufficient health care (Kador, J. (2012). How does the hospital management ensure striking a balance between these growing demands as well as the changes within the healthcare sector with the aspect of maintaining the organization as not for profit? A focus on the job and the human resource portal indicate that Mercy Health System serves as an equal employment opportunity provider. Consequently, the organization emphasizes how such achievements are enhanced by focusing on issues related discrimination that may result or attributed to age, sex, race nation origin, as well as color among others. However, more are a times where different organizations present such detailed paper programs only on paper while the situation on the ground where the worker operates states otherwise. That
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Consumer Personality Theories - Essay Example Horney classified individuals, on the context of child-parent relationship, as either:- Compliant Personality - one who desires to be loved, wanted, and appreciated by others. Aggressive Personality - one who moves against or competes with others, desires to excel and win admiration. Detached Personality - one who seeks emotional & behavioural freedom from others, desires independence, self-sufficiency and freedom from obligations. Cohen's Extension Study - In further extending Horney's classification, Cohen posited the relationship between the 3 orientations and consumer behavior. In the study, Cohen implemented a CAD scale (a Likert-type instrument of thirty-five items) measuring 15 items based on product usage, brand usage, and media preferences (Berkman and Gilson). Cohen's Hypothesis - Cohen propounded that consumers can be classified into:- Compliant - likely inclined to respond favorably to products enhancing social relations Aggressive - inclined towards products associated with status and successful images Detached - inclined towards products appealing to their independent nature 2.C. Trait Theory Trait theory proposes the use of traits - Allport defines traits as the attributes that make a person functional and identify the given person (Berkman and Gilson) - as the factors that construct personality and by which behavior is influenced. Berkman and Gilson indicated that there is no consensus as to a set of traits applicable to all individuals. The three assumptions of this theory: a. Assumes that individuals possess relatively stable behavioral tendencies b. People differ in... Social-psychological theorists assert that social factors ought to be considered the key determinants of personality (Engel and Blackwell). Karen Horney, a proponent of the social-psychological theory, further developed the theory through her taxonomy of personality orientation. Horney classified individuals, on the context of child-parent relationship, as either:- Cohen's Extension Study - In further extending Horney's classification, Cohen posited the relationship between the 3 orientations and consumer behavior. In the study, Cohen implemented a CAD scale (a Likert-type instrument of thirty-five items) measuring 15 items based on product usage, brand usage, and media preferences (Berkman and Gilson). Trait theory proposes the use of traits - Allport defines traits as the attributes that make a person functional and identify the given person (Berkman and Gilson) - as the factors that construct personality and by which behavior is influenced. Berkman and Gilson indicated that there is no consensus as to a set of traits applicable to all individuals. The three assumptions of this theory: With the adoption of the Big Five factor model of personality in recent years, congruity in regards to a set of common t
Friday, November 15, 2019
Supporting ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Learning and Development Unit 4: Supporting ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Learning and Development Identify each of three prime areas and four specific areas of learning. Every child is a unique child; Children learn to be forceful and independent through positive relationships; Children discover and develop well in enabling environments; and Children develop and discover in different methods and at different rates. Planning Ã¢â¬ËPractitioners must consider the individual needs, interests, and stage of progress of every child in their care, have to use this data to plan a challenging and pleasant experience for every child in all of the areas of discovering and development. Focus Ã¢â¬ËPractitioners working alongside the youngest children are anticipated to focus powerfully on the three prime areas, which are the basis for successful discovering in the supplementary four specific areas. The three prime areas imitate the key skills and capacities of all children demand to develop and discover effectively, and come to be prepared for school. It is anticipated that the balance will shift towards an extra equal focus on all areas of discovering as children produce in assurance and skill inside the three prime areas. Home language Ã¢â¬ËProviders have to acquire reasonable steps to offer opportunities for children to develop and use their residence speech in play and learning, supporting their speech progress at home. Providers have to additionally safeguard that children have adequate opportunities to discover and attain a good average in English language throughout the EYFS, safeguarding children are prepared to benefit from the opportunities obtainable to them when they begin Year 1.Ã¢â¬â¢ Play Ã¢â¬ËEach area of learning and progress have to be implemented through planned, purposeful play and throughout a mix of adult-led and child-initiated activityÃ¢â¬ ¦.Children discover by managing their own play, and by taking part in play that is accompanied by adults. There is an ongoing judgement to be made by practitioners concerning the balance between activities managed by children, and activities managed or guided by adults. Practitioners must respond to every childÃ¢â¬â¢s emerging needs and interests, accompanying their progress through warm, positive interaction. As children produce, and as their progress permits, it is anticipated that the balance will softly shift towards more activities managed by adults, to aid children prepare for more formal learning, prepared for Year 1. Key characteristics In arranging and accompanying childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s activities, practitioners have to imitate on the different methods that children discover and imitate these in their practice. Three characteristics of competent teaching and discovering are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Playing and discovering Ã¢â¬ ¢ Active learning Ã¢â¬ ¢ Creating and thinking critically. Key person Each child has to be allocated to a key person. Explain how planning can be devised to promote the individual needs of children. Some children could truly dislike the sense of various material be sensitive to this, softly encourage play but take them at their own pace and level of comfort. Have soaked wipes near so that they can be utilized at any time. converse to parents concerning the benefits of messy play and enthuse its use at home. Permit plenty of periods for these activities. Possessing the activity before lunch will locale pressure on the child and adult during clean up. Connect in ideal that it is OK to become your labour dirty. Individual containers for the material can be of benefit to a child that needs support with boundaries, as a larger container i.e. water tray or sand box can enthuse a withdrawn child to interact through others. Use aged adult sized t-shirts or shirts for youthful children to wear during activities. Roll up sleeves and put on waterproof bibs for babies. Possessing a spare set of clothes is always a good back up. Attempt to position the activity near to where the children can wash their hands. At clean up period, enthuse children to aid have individual fabrics, clearly described storage areas, cleaning line for paintings, dustpan and brush near sand. Planning programmes can additionally create a sense of protection for the children. Planning includes long term Ã¢â¬â looking at the vision for the service Ã¢â¬â and short or medium term programme planning Ã¢â¬â looking at the day to day and weekly running of the service. Planning as a team supports the team in working together and the conception of a sense of ownership. Arranging requires setting aside period on a weekly basis after everyone can attend. It permits workers period to debate observations on the needs and interests of individual children and the group and next how to plan for these. This additionally helps individual staff members to recognise what their role is every single date, thus ensuring a smoother running service. It is vital to study your strategies and their implementation to notify upcoming planning. We can advance the progress of thinking and reasoning in young children by providing two curriculum components Ã¢â¬â arranging and reflection. Both are thoughtful activities that support children to consider what they are doing and what they are learning. They additionally advance a broad range of other academic, social and artistic skills. Involve children in arranging and enthuse them to recognise their goals and consider the options for achieving them. For example, they could consider what they will do, whereas they will do it, what materials they will use, who they will do it alongside, how long it will take and whether they will require help. Involve children in reflection and encourage them to go beyond just revealing what theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve done. This helps them become aware of what they learned in the procedure, what was interesting, how they feel concerning it and what they can do to bu ild on the experience. When children plan, carry out, and study their own discovering activities, their behaviour is more purposeful and they present larger on speech and supplementary intellectual measures. Describe how the practitioner can support childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning and development in each area of learning. When preparing environments for children, it is important to consider their age and stage of development. We also need to ensure that the experiences and play opportunities offered cover the areas of development outlined in the EYFS. We also need to consider whether the environment meets the needs of individual children. Children develop at different rates. Some children need more challenging activities while others may need a different type of activity or different resources. Observing individual children to see how the engage with the environment will help us to plan appropriately. The practitioner should always make sure that the environment around the child is safe if not this could but the child in hazard, and also should make sure the environment meet each child individual needs. The practitioners should guide the children of being individual and do their own activity. As well as working together with parents and carers practitioners need to recognise that this should be taking place with multi- agencies working together too. Setting should be pointing parents in the directions of other agencies which could be of benefit to them. Multi agency working is different services, agencies, professionals and practitioners who work together to provide services for children and parents. These services are sometimes integrated together to offer a more effective care for young children. Children in the early years may have a wide range of needs and working together with other professionals can have a positive impact on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s health, development and learning. Professionals that work together with children and their families can share lots of information. They can agree which ways they may assess and plan for a particular child. Both children and the parents can be involved in any planning this will help the child to reach his full potential. It is also important that confidentiality is maintained at all times. By sharing information and all professionals concerned working together the outcome for the child can only be positive. The arrangement of the environment plays a key role in guiding the behaviour of young children. A poorly arranged physical setting actually sends messages which may trigger behaviour such as aggressive play, running, or superficial interactions with toys and materials. Altering the physical space and layout of the room can eliminate such challenging behaviours. Observe children closely to determine what messages the physical environment is sending. If it appears that the space suggests undesirable behaviours to children like running indoorsbe willing to modify the arrangement of equipment and furnishings to send a different message.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
"A 'place in the mind', wherever or whatever it may be, can only ever be fictitious. In the act of its creation, the 'place' is formed by a process that necessitates an imaginative leap; it does not actually exist, and therefore its constituent elements have to be imagined, made up by the creator. For a place - in this case, America - to exist in the realms of the mind, it must be a place that exists outside of a corporeal, material reality. Fiction becomes the perfect arena to present this place, because its very nature allows imagined, idealised and remembered places to exist, a venue where the intangibility of these places can achieve a tangible realisation. Between the pages of a book, the place in the mind can become real, if only for a while; the America that exists between the pages of its nation's fiction is often an America of the mind, but an America that for a fleeting moment achieves a kind of actuality." Nathaniel Hawthorne's "Blithedale Romance", is the first person narration of a man bent upon joining a world that has no need of him by imposing an arbitrary order upon his reality. Blithedale, is a novel of polarities. Just as Coverdale imposes order on reality, Zenobia, the feminine voice of creation, understands reality as a fragmented thing that cannot have order forced upon it. We see in the novel oppositions in communities, in social order, and in place. But, Hawthorne also gives us a richly crafted story about what it is that defines community and the common spirit or communal soul. The romance, of this book, is not just that of man and woman, but of the romantic ideals of society and of order. Coverdale, who is the namesake of the primary translator of the King James bible, is a man bent upon making the world be what he wants it to be. Hawthorne's, The Blithedale Romance, provides the reader with a set of beliefs, ideals, and aspirations, that become ideologies that actually mask reality thus pitting the utopian hopes of Blithedale against actual human behaviors - which makes for a difficult conflict at best Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts, into an old Puritan family. Hawthorne's own 17th-century ancestors, as he frankly admitted, had been among the real-life Puritan zealots. "Young Goodman Brown" is a story of initiation. Evil is the nature of mankind.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
After the occurrence of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, President George W. Bush signed a law, the PATRIOT Act. The PATRIOT Act made it easier for the law enforcement officials to use certain techniques such as wiretapping and other surveillance technologies to aid in the war against terrorism. The reason why this topic needs to be addressed is located in the following quote: Ã¢â¬Å"The probability that people are terrorists given that NSAÃ¢â¬â¢s system of surveillance identifies them as terrorists is only p=0.2308, which is far from one and well below flipping a coin. NSAÃ¢â¬â¢s [National Security AgencyÃ¢â¬â¢s] domestic monitoring of everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s email and phone calls is useless for finding terroristsÃ¢â¬ (Rudmin, Alston P29). Many people argue that the government has gone too far with allowing violations of the Bill of Rights in the name of protecting the country from terrorists. Although some people argue that the government should use all means to fight against terrorism, the government should not be engaged in the surveillance of their citizens in the interests of national security because people expect privacy in their communications, travel and personal records and activities. Some people argue that the government should use all means to fight against terrorism. Alexander Hamilton, one of our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s founding fathers, believed that the government needed to have a free hand in protecting the people. Ã¢â¬Å"The power to protect the nation ought to exist without limitation, it is impossible to foresee or define the extend and variety of national exigencies, or the correspondent extent and variety of the means which may be necessary to satisfy themÃ¢â¬ (Yoo P7). Hamilton believed that the presidents power to protect the nation as commander in chief should not be limited. Many people and even parts of the government have adopted a slogan meant to ease worries over surveillance. Ã¢â¬Å"If youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got nothing to hide, youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got nothing to fearÃ¢â¬ (Solove P4). The intent of this is that you should not be afraid of the government examining every aspect of your life if you have done nothing wrong in the first place. The arguments present ed to support unlimited government powers of surveillance lend themselves to the end justifying any means. Many believe the best way to fight terrorism is to monitor everything passing through communications channels regardless of the source or destination. Ã¢â¬Å"The best way to find an al Qaeda operative is to look at all email, text and phone traffic between Afghanistan and Pakistan and the U.S. This might involve the filtering of innocent traffic, just as roadblocks and airport screenings doÃ¢â¬ (Yoo P5). In 2008, The United States Senate determined to do just that. The Protect America Act (PAA) expanded upon the FISA Act of 1978 (Federal Intelligence Surveillance Act) to allow more flexibility in monitoring internal communication for intelligence purposes. The Protect America Act substantially changes the intent and protections included in the original FISA Act. Ã¢â¬Å"The FISA Act was originally passed to prevent abuse, not allow for more of itÃ¢â¬ ¦ conclusion that the Protect America Act is intended to reduce the ability of the original FISA legislation to preclude abuseÃ¢â¬ (Alston P35). The PAA allows for monitoring of communications without judicial warrant within the United States. The PAA also allows government agencies to compel telecommunications companies to provide access and information while at the same time protecting them from prosecution for violating privacy laws. Ã¢â¬Å"Failure to obey an order of the FISA Court may be punished as a contempt of courtÃ¢â¬ (Alston P11). Ã¢â¬Å"The Act compels an action and simultaneously removes all responsibility for that actionÃ¢â¬ (Alston P13). The FISA Court is not a judicial court, and meets in secrecy. Communications within the United States can now be monitored at the direction of a secret court without oversight from judicial courts and without recourse from those being monitored. Since the government wanted to inhibit the ability of terrorists to attack using commercial aircraft, the Transportation Safety Administration (TSA) added new airport security measures. The terrorist attacks resulted in many cases of racial and ethnic profiling. The victims of these accusations were mostly of a Middle Eastern descent. These people were subject to searches and interrogations, often without probable cause (ProQuest P1). In order to avoid claims of profiling, airport security checks include whole-body imagers, full pat-downs, and other screening measures for all travelers. Some of these measures violate the right to be secure in our person, while not necessarily improving safety. Ã¢â¬Å"Yet screeners routinely fail to discern the guns, knives, and other contraband their monitors showÃ¢â¬ ¦ the distractions of whole-body imaging are considerably greater than anything in the average carry-onÃ¢â¬ (Akers P3). These new security measures do not inherently make our transportation more secure, and the distractions caused by some may actually make them less secure. In addition, these systems themselves may not be secure or exactly what they are represented to be. Ã¢â¬Å"The TSA has long denied that its gadgets retain the pictures they snap of usÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Ëhave zero storage capabilityÃ¢â¬â¢, so the images cannot be stored transmitted or printedÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Kudwa). Ã¢â¬Å"We know from the website of one of the vendors that these machines can indeed store imagesÃ¢â¬ (Rotenberg). Indeed, images from these systems were subsequently published on the Internet, leading many to question the honesty of the TSA representatives and their vendors. While the government does indeed need to be able to protect the nation, they should do so without violating constitutional rights. Amendment 4 of the Constitution provides that, Ã¢â¬Å"The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, an no warrants issued, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be s eizedÃ¢â¬ (US Constitution, A4). This basic guaranteed right is violated by intelligence monitoring of personal communications of citizens within the United States borders without a warrant. The PATRIOT Act also allows for search and seizure of private records without a judicial warrant under specific rules. Ã¢â¬Å"An FBI agent came to my office and handed me a letter. It demanded that I turn over information about one of my clients and forbade me from telling Ã¢â¬Ëany personÃ¢â¬â¢ that the government had approached meÃ¢â¬ ¦ National security letters are issued by the FBI, not a judge, to obtain informationÃ¢â¬ (Merrill P1-2). Ã¢â¬Å"This information is especially important since internal Justice Department investigations have found widespread violations of NSL rules by the FBIÃ¢â¬ (Merrill P7). This statement reveals that governmental agencies are pursuing private, protected information without obtaining a judicial warrant, hiding their actions behind gag orders with threats of imprisonment, and violatin g PATRIOT Act provisions for National Security Letters. The books Matched and Crossed, by Ally Condie, in many ways mirror what is happening in our country today with the use of surveillance of citizens by government. In the books, all personal communication, spoken or written, is monitored by Officials. These Officials are responsible for monitoring the morals and directing the future of their society. These Officials are similar to the many government agencies using surveillance to monitor the daily lives of citizens for Ã¢â¬Å"counter-terroristÃ¢â¬ purposes. Every facet of daily life is monitored by the Officials and perceived wrongdoing subjects a citizen to social status change and removal from society. In America today, anyone can be searched without probable cause, and to be even suspected as a terrorist or sympathizer can result in imprisonment. In an even greater invasion of privacy, the Officials in the books monitor the very dreams of their citizens. We can only hope medical technology does not grant this capability to our government. Although some people argue that the government should fight terrorism with all methods, the government should not be violating the Bill of Rights. Government agencies, mostly working in secret and immune from warrants and judicial review, have been granted the ability to violate rights of citizens guaranteed by the Constitution in order to ensure our safety. Ã¢â¬Å"Those who would give up Essential Liberty to purchase a little Temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor SafetyÃ¢â¬ (Benjamin Franklin). United States citizens do not need to relinquish our freedom or rights for safety against terrorists. Ã¢â¬Å"Perhaps the best way to ensure that the act remains faithful to fundamental American values is to insist on greater transparency and oversightÃ¢â¬ (Sales P17). The government should work to protect us from terrorists and other threats, but can do so without violating the rights of citizens granted by the Constitution. Works Cited Akers, Becky. Ã¢â¬Å"Whole-Body Imaging: Intrusion Without Security.Ã¢â¬ Freeman Vol. 60, No. 4 May 2010: n. pag. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. . Condie, Ally. Crossed. New York: Dutton Books, 2011. Print. Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â -. Matched. New York: Dutton Books, 2010. Print. Merrill, Nicholas. Ã¢â¬Å"The Patriot ActÃ¢â¬â¢s War on Free Speech.Ã¢â¬ Washington Post 26 Oct. 2011: A. 19. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. ProQuest Staff. Ã¢â¬Å"At Issue: National Security and Privacy.Ã¢â¬ ProQuest LLC. SIRS Issues Researcher, 2011. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. . Sales, Nathan A. Ã¢â¬Å"The Patriot Act IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t Broken.Ã¢â¬ Christian Science Monitor 6 Mar. 2009: n. pag. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. . Solove, Daniel J. Ã¢â¬Å"Why Privasy Metter Even if You Have Ã¢â¬ËNothing to Hide.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ Chronicle of Higher Education 15 May 2011: n. pag. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. Yoo, John. Ã¢â¬Å"Why We Endorsed Warrantless Wiretraps.Ã¢â¬ Wall Street Journal 16 July 2009: A. 13. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. .
Friday, November 8, 2019
Introduction FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychoanalytic theory and PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive development theory are two well known theories in explaining the development of personality. They both can explain where children are in their development of their personality. Although they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t thought of as useful and Ã¢â¬ËtrueÃ¢â¬â¢ theories they are very interesting to see how they apply to children. These theories are outlined below and are shown how they apply to a family with three children. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychoanalytic theory was an approach to describing and explaining the development of personality. In describing the development of personality Freud proposed that that it followed a sequence of five different Ã¢â¬Ëpsychosexual stagesÃ¢â¬â¢, with each stage having crucial emotional events, with the more important ones occurring during childhood. But the main idea in the Ã¢â¬Ëpsychosexual stagesÃ¢â¬â¢ is that the emotional events involved sexual urges. If a failure to complete a crucial event in a particular stage either by too little gratification or too much anxiety then a Ã¢â¬ËfixationÃ¢â¬â¢ results. This fixation causes impairment in personality development causing Ã¢â¬Ëthe individual to retain some of the characteristics of that stage in later lifeÃ¢â¬â¢ (Birch 1997). The Ã¢â¬ËOxford Psychology Study DictionaryÃ¢â¬â¢ describes FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s 5 psychosexual stages as follows: Oral Stage (0 Ã¢â¬â 2 years) The mouth is the focus of pleasurable sensations such as sucking, chewing and biting. The parents are the main sources for gratification for the infant, and the ways in which they meet the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s needs are critical in shaping personality later in life. For example, an Ã¢â¬Ëoral fixationÃ¢â¬â¢ may develop if a nursing mother weans the infant too abruptly. The fixation may reveal itself later in life through activities such as constant nail biting, chewing and cigarette smoking, particularly when anxious. Anal Stage (2 Ã¢â¬â 3 years) The anus is the focus of pl... Free Essays on Freud And Piaget Free Essays on Freud And Piaget Introduction FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychoanalytic theory and PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive development theory are two well known theories in explaining the development of personality. They both can explain where children are in their development of their personality. Although they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t thought of as useful and Ã¢â¬ËtrueÃ¢â¬â¢ theories they are very interesting to see how they apply to children. These theories are outlined below and are shown how they apply to a family with three children. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychoanalytic theory was an approach to describing and explaining the development of personality. In describing the development of personality Freud proposed that that it followed a sequence of five different Ã¢â¬Ëpsychosexual stagesÃ¢â¬â¢, with each stage having crucial emotional events, with the more important ones occurring during childhood. But the main idea in the Ã¢â¬Ëpsychosexual stagesÃ¢â¬â¢ is that the emotional events involved sexual urges. If a failure to complete a crucial event in a particular stage either by too little gratification or too much anxiety then a Ã¢â¬ËfixationÃ¢â¬â¢ results. This fixation causes impairment in personality development causing Ã¢â¬Ëthe individual to retain some of the characteristics of that stage in later lifeÃ¢â¬â¢ (Birch 1997). The Ã¢â¬ËOxford Psychology Study DictionaryÃ¢â¬â¢ describes FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s 5 psychosexual stages as follows: Oral Stage (0 Ã¢â¬â 2 years) The mouth is the focus of pleasurable sensations such as sucking, chewing and biting. The parents are the main sources for gratification for the infant, and the ways in which they meet the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s needs are critical in shaping personality later in life. For example, an Ã¢â¬Ëoral fixationÃ¢â¬â¢ may develop if a nursing mother weans the infant too abruptly. The fixation may reveal itself later in life through activities such as constant nail biting, chewing and cigarette smoking, particularly when anxious. Anal Stage (2 Ã¢â¬â 3 years) The anus is the focus of pl...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Dos and Donts of Giving a Presentation Most college students, at one point or another in their academic career, will be required to give a presentation or speech in a class for a grade. Some may be required to pass a Speech course for their major, but most will surely be required to give a presentation in a number of classes. While it is not a science by any means, giving a presentation or a speech can be a lot of fun. It is a skill an individual will have and develop over the course of their lives, one that will earn them jobs, a good salary Ã¢â¬â because they will be able to master the art of verbal communication. POWERPOINT PRESENTATION Ã Ã Prepare and Visualize a Successful Speech or Presentation It has been noted that some of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest athletes have the same mental habit for when they compete: in their minds, they literally visualize a victory Ã¢â¬â from start to finish. They prepare themselves mentally for what they are about to do. The same principle can be applied to giving a speech, whether in the real world or in the classroom. The speaker, long before they are to give the speech, can visualize having a successful outcome and delivering a fantastic speech. But having great success at something also comes from the work, which is done before this positive visualization approach is to occur. A speech or presentation should first of all be well researched; it should illustrate an argument or theme, and first be written out in the form of an essay. Ã Ã Be Presentable Looking the part is half the battle. When people are bathed and well dressed, when people look their best, they most times will exude confidence Ã¢â¬â which is often the most crucial tool of success when talking in front of a large room. Ã Ã Remember to Breathe and Take a Few Seconds to Gather a Thought Breathing during a speech not only breaks the monotony of a speech, it also relaxes the speaker and helps them concentrate. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more important: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s floor Ã¢â¬â if they want to take a few seconds to gather their thoughts, no one will interrupt them. A few seconds will seem an eternity. But only to the speaker. Take advantage of breathing. Ã Ã Be Confident Ã¢â¬â But Not Arrogant Ã¢â¬â and Smile Often Speaking in front of people is part of life. A student required to give one in college may as well just accept this inevitable fact. With that said, they may as well also embrace the art and skill of giving a good speech and learn how to excel at it. Once again, having a confident, optimistic attitude is half the battle. The other half is a combination of preparation and showing up. And smile. It relaxes the room and the speaker. Ã Ã Make Brief Eye Contact With Audience ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a speech to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s peers. Not a case of a judge. This assignment is an exercise in communication. Learn the seemingly simple yet very complex art of communicating now. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s career will thank them in 10, 20 years from now. Learn now that people are what matters. Individualize people. It makes them feel special, which means they will then listen to the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s speech and become engaged. Ã Ã Be Loud Enough So That the Entire Room Can Hear the Speech DonÃ¢â¬â¢t shout to the audience Ã¢â¬â but donÃ¢â¬â¢t be a mouse, either. Learn to get peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s attention without making them feel physically uncomfortable. Ã Ã Say Ã¢â¬Å"Like,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"UhÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"UmÃ¢â¬ minimally. Pause Instead This is the difference in sounding intelligent and sounding like an ignoramus. Honestly. Start being cognizant of saying this now in college. By the end of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s college career, they may even have rid themselves of these words altogether. Ã Ã Improvise The point of the speech or presentation is being entertaining and engaging to an audience. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be afraid to go off script. Just remember that most assignments have a time limit and students are often judged on making a case for something. But, nonetheless, focus on giving a presentation. Ã Ã Tell An Anecdote or Ask a Question Starting a speech with a question for the audience or with a personal anecdote is often all a speaker needs to grab their audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. Though keeping it is a completely different story and challenge altogether. Ã Ã Avoid Being Dull and Lifeless Whatever topic the student giving the speech or presentation is expounding on, it should generally be one they are interested or even quite passionate about. When they breathe their own excitement into a subject, it will generally feed into the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s curiosity and excitement as well. Ã Apologize for a Mistake Ã¢â¬â DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Apologize for Anything, ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the SpeakerÃ¢â¬â¢s Floor Really, when giving a speech, remember there is no other speaker talking at that time. It is their time to do as they wish; it is their time to be evaluated. They should make the most of it and treat it as their time to fulfill their objective Ã¢â¬â and no one elseÃ¢â¬â¢s. Ã Ã Read ONLY From Notes. Instead of Talking to the Audience DonÃ¢â¬â¢t read just from notes or notecards. Those are just to prompt thought. Get used to going off a single thought and expounding on it naturally. That is the skill of public speaking. Ã Stand Still Move around, be a person. Be interesting. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t put the audience to sleep. Have some energy. Bounce around the room to get their attention. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s all that matters: holding the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. Ã Ã Mumble. Instead, Speak Clearly and Slowly If Needed If the audience has to strain to understand their speaker, they would rather just lose interest and think of something else. When they have no choice but to hear their speaker, because the speaker is eloquent and projects their voice when talking, they will listen and become engaged and most times will find their speakingÃ¢â¬â¢s message quite interesting or insightful or inspiring in some way or another. Ã Be Too Serious This is a speech or presentation assignment in college. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s for a grade. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not a plea to the UN. Have a little perspective and try to enjoy the assignment. Make it fun even. But donÃ¢â¬â¢t make it more serious than it is. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an assignment. Get it done and go on. Ã Touch Hair and Face It is not only distracting, but it tells the audience the speaker is self-conscious and nervous and quite possibly a bore. Ã Lose Focus of the Main Objective: to Pass the Class and Graduate What matters is getting that degree. Whatever it takes to get that degree. Even if speaking in front of others isnÃ¢â¬â¢t oneÃ¢â¬â¢s cup of tea, focusing on the long-term goal of graduation is enough to get through it. Ã Forget to Communicate With Body Language to a Make Point Stronger A voice isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s only tool when talking to a room full of people. Their body language Ã¢â¬â their posture, their arms, their gait, their eye and face gestures Ã¢â¬â can also reinforce a thought or an emotion, in turn really emphasizing something to the audience.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Bottom of the Pyramid - Essay Example By targeting the middle and lower incomes, they can hope to cash in on the phenomenon on the rising imbalance in wealth across the globe. What the article implies is that people who scrape together a living may well be the gold mine that marketers may want to look at. By scraping the bottom, the marketers may well find gold dust that has been neglected for so long.Ã The authors make the point that there are four tiers of the consuming classes. The tier 1 is the most affluent with annual incomes more than $20,000.Ã The next two tiers 2 and 3 have annual incomes in the range of $1,500 to $20,000, while the last tier makes up of those who have incomes less than $1,500 annually.Ã The article makes a strong case for devoting resources to target the tier 4 consumers.Ã The point about social unrest due to the ability of the tier 4 consumers disturbing the lifestyles of other tiers is discussed.Ã Therefore, it is in the interests of all sections to maintain the equitable balance in society to ensure that the tier 4 consumers are not neglected.Ã This is the social point of view.Ã However, as the article states, there are compelling reasons from the profit point of view as well to create a market for tier 4 consumers.Ã The wave of industrialization and globalization has created a category of consumers who are willing to try and experiment with new products but do not have the resources to buy premium products.Ã Thus, there is a need to create and make products that are suitable for this class of consumers.
Friday, November 1, 2019
Sttafing - Essay Example Researches should be done on all departments. Senior management should come up with cross-functional teams that are set to improve the performance of an organization. This piece of work is a close look of staffing issues that cause collapse of companies. The case used is Candle Light Inc., a company that trades in telecommunication, manufacturing and supply. The issues that affect companies are resultant of the leadership (i.e. strong or weak). Weaknesses of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership can be manifested in the reluctance in implementation of issues that arise within the company. Among the most prevalent issues that affect the staff of a company adversely are such like leadership vision and the vision of the company, team work failure, and lack of reinforcement of skills and knowledge, as well as poor communication. Candle Light Company Inc. is threatened by a leadership that has no vision and has no commitment to the vision of the company. The board of directors is acting against a CEO who addresses the issues that threaten the company. In their lack of vision for the company, they manifest a level of lack of transparency for they retain the vice president of human resource and administration who is less productive. They have failed to adjust their plans with the changing world trends. For example, they continue to retain workers that were trained many decades ago who have not refreshed their training. Refreshing would have made them more conversant with current trends of business within the world. The administration has not done any research that would identify the needs of their customers. The leadership has manifested lack of professionalism. They engaged in property damage when they failed to agree on a labor contract. Team work has failed terribly in the staff of Candle Light Inc. Leaders such as the senior Vice president for human resource administration insists on his stand. He