Wednesday, October 30, 2019

The termination theory versus the deprivation account Essay

The termination theory versus the deprivation account - Essay Example The paper tells that all human beings must die. This is the only thing that we know for a fact. The certainty aside, death still presents many questions to the living that make them curious of what exactly it means to die. Some people believe that death is the end of everything and nothing remains except the memory of a person in the ones he leaves behind. A number of philosophers have focused at length on the philosophy of death and have offered contrasting viewpoints on what their take on death is. The question that many people ask is whether death is evil or not. This is where the contrasting viewpoints arise whether the person believes in some form of immortality or not. One school of thought claims that death is an evil simply because it puts an end to all the good things that we experience in life. The benefits that humans accrue from being alive are activities, desires, perception, thought and all aspects that generally constitute the human life. Despite the misery that fills our lives on occasion, we still have the good times that we treasure and that is the greatest thing about being alive. On a scale, there are many experiences that we go through that are positive and fill us with joy, hope, and all other good emotions we experience. On the contrary, there are experiences in our lives including the death of our loved ones that make our lives worse. For this reason therefore, one would assume that life is a neutral as the good cancel out the bad. However, the good usually outweigh the bad and the result is positive meaning that the experiences of life far outweigh its consequences. The other school of thought is regarded as the termination thesis in which philosophers like Epicurus ascribe to. This school says that as long as we are alive, death is not with us but soon as we die, then we do not exist. The philosophers of this school say that there is nothing to fear in death. PART I The termination thesis is false. This is because it purports that when a person dies, there is no change that occurs except that the person has simply ceased to exist. It also claims that the person’s psychological or moral importance is not eroded due to death. Another argument that the termination thesis makes is that when a person dies, he does not continue to exist as a corpse. The existence of a person is the cornerstone of the termination thesis and it states that if a person continues to exist as a corpse, the person continues to exist and is contrary to the thesis. To die is bad, not because of death itself, but because life as we know it is a good experience and the loss of it is a deprivation. It is not bad because of any positive elements that it might have but because it removes what we consider desirable. PART II The termination theory in my account is false. This however does not mean that the arguments by Epicurus are easy. In any case, it makes the termination theory even harder while making those of the deprivation theory look harder too. The termination theory does not purport that there is no life after death. In fact, neither does the deprivation theory. In the opinion of Epicurus and other like-minded philosophers who support the termination theory, there are a number of points that need to be considered. When a person dies, he ceases to exist. That is the consensus between the two theories. However, the termination theory goes ahead to say that that occurrence cannot be considered as being an evil and as such, people should not fear death. When a tree dies, there is a remaining stump that is still firmly rooted to the ground albeit lifeless. Therefore, when a person cuts the tree off and counts the annual rings, then one can tell the age of the tree when it died. When one looks into the field, you see what was once a tree. If this is the case for all organisms, then, we all cease to exist at some point but the signs of our existence are still visible. There is a transition that is involved in the dea th of

Monday, October 28, 2019

Social Equality in Childrens Literature Essay Example for Free

Social Equality in Childrens Literature Essay Student Name Professor Name Subject 20 June 2012 Social Equality in Childrens Literature To begin with, we should say what social equality is in general. Social equality is a state of social affairs where all the people within the same group or any other formation have the same rights and, what is more important, the same status in certain respects. Some basic differences may divide people in social hierarchy. The main ones are gender, race, or wealth. But why is it so significant especially in children literature? To my mind, the second question is whether there is any social equality in children literature. I think there are a lot of books which show this problem. To traverse this problem we’ll discuss some children books. And in the books under analysis people suffer from race division. Unfortunately, race is an outdated concept for distinguishing people. Racism has always been the greatest problem for the USA, especially considering African Americans. Equal rights and social value is a matter that needs to be taken extremely seriously. Martin Luther King Jnr, Gandhi, Jesus, Malcolm X, Pope John II, The Dalai Lama, St Francis of Assisi and even John Lennon all believed that social rights and being equal, no matter who you are, is one of the most important things in the world to conquer. Maybe, children books are the first sources of anti-racism and helpers to fight with social inequality. Let’s think broader to understand this. The first book to discuss is The Watsons Go to Birmingham by C. P. Curtis. It is a historical fiction book. And there is 16th Street Baptist Church bombing  in Birmingham. This moment was a critical catalyst of the American civil rights movement. Could we judge a historical book as children one? Let’s dwell on the details. Because Kenny, the main character, tells the story of his family’s trip to the Deep South, the reader gets to experience what is was like to grow up during the height of the civil rights struggle. In the first part Kenny introduces his family, so called â€Å"Weird Watsons†. They live in Flint, Michigan, while Grandma Sands lives in Alabama. Both places are under rather intriguing seasons. The family have to run away to save themselves. That is not the only reason. Kelly is bullied at school. This is both because of his being an excellent student and some civil inequality. But to my mind, children become to bully, as for a civil aspect, only after their parents’ words or actions. They are too young to judge a person properly. Anyway, the book remains just a story about a family, but some moments, such as the church bombings or the murder of Emmet Till, makes it very powerful. What is more, Birmingham, as the centre of action, also is the centre of civil fights and maybe it could be a symbol of that time. As for national equality, not the whole book, but significant moments in it are the greatest examples of the problem. But to understand everything it is better to read and fell it. The second book under analysis is Monster by W. D. Myers. It is a drama novel. To continue our discussing according to the theme let’s say about the characters and the problems described in the novel. Steve Harmon is an African American who is on trial for felony murder in New York City. Peer pressure is the main theme which then affected how Steve ended up. As for humanity, Steve is called â€Å"Monster†. He starts thinking over it. This book could be named autobiographical, because Myers was often laughed at at school. And this story is scribbled on the pages of the novel, as the author took his school teacher’s advice and wrote at night after work just as then Steve did. Although the novel is focused on moral and then social issues, it definitely touches some social problems. Some comment about being black that already may make a person guilty brings up a long-standing social issue about discrimination against African Americans in law enforcement. The question of social equality appears in bullying, and it becomes much greater during the trial. I think Steve is accused as guilty only because of his skin color. Myers was highly prized for his book as the contribution to children’s literature. The next book to pay attention to is Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry by M. D. Taylor. It was even adopted as TV series what can say the author is a master. Action takes place in Depression time. That time was harder than ever for the whole America. There are two points of view in this book: fortunate Logans and a lot of people both black and white – are living as sharecroppers. This makes racially motivated crimes common. The novel shows the necessity in owing the lands. But the main theme, to my mind, is the effect of racism. The first sign of racism appears even at school in the state of books. For white students they are new and for black ones the books are in poor condition. The Logans prove that even being black doesn’t prevent anybody to become rich. The Wallace family is the most racist and all the sharecroppers’ families fear them. But as for Cassie, the narrator, and the families, her one owns, the Wallaces don’t play rather great role. The main life lesson Cassie takes is that material independence may be the key to ethical independence. This type of narration enables Taylor to juxtapose childhood innocence and show wonder of bigotry and racism. And the author, through the child’s eyes, without any polemics or even bitterness, shows the greatest problems of that time with surprise and growing disappointment. Taylor doesn’t make any effort to soften the affect of racism problems and shows the influence events of the 1930s had on the civil rights formation and famous Black Power movements of the 1950s and 1960s. And this enables the reader to understand those feelings the girl had. The novel is highly prized by most critics. Now we go to Malcolm X: A Graphic Biography by Andrew Helfer ; Randy DuBurke. This book is like a philosophical reflection. It shows the thoughts about black pride, Black Nationalism and pan-Africanism. Some critics name this book as the most read and influential book among young people of any racial background. What is more interesting, some chapters were silenced by FBI. Characters in the book mostly associate with other people to meet them and treat them like objects rather than human beings. And this aspect is pointed out in the autobiography to show how hierarchy of social status affects self-esteem. Neither his friends nor his family recognizes Malcolm as a person. The use his skin color as demonstration of their tolerance and broadmindedness. The only wish is to gain the status for them. But Malcolm uses his girlfriend as the same symbol or status and then this action turns to him: Malcolm becomes a symbol of the Nation of Islam’s vitality. This all makes any person to degrade. Only after passing through so many phases and seeing the race problem from so many different points of view Malcolm is able to settle on a philosophy in which he truly believes. Malcolm is represented in the book in a lot of guises, beginning from Malcolm Little and then Malcolm El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz appears. And through all this changing eyes we see racism problems and Malcolm’s attitude on them. All problems about equality are surrounded about racism. In this case it is not white people against African Americans but believes in so called â€Å"Black Pride† or black power. Malcolm, using people as marionettes, becomes a marionette partially in fate’s hands and then in the hands of nationalistic organization. Only faith in himself may save Malcolm from losing his soul in the fight for status in â€Å"equal† hierarchy. And at last our attention goes to I Know Why The Cage Bird Sings by Maya Angelou. The book is autobiographical. I was written in 1969. The name speaks for itself. Caged in racism and trauma, a person can overcome it with the help of strength and love. Angelou describes such problems as identity, rape, racism and literacy. All this affects her life less or more. It happens so, that Stamps, Arkansas, is so segregated, that the girl can’t even believe that white people exist. But getting older Maya is confronted by rougher incidents of racism. Children books describe all the events which are no for children at all. BT described from the child’s point of view, they make the reader fell everything by himself with the same curiosity and then growing disappointment. Just skin color makes even her name a great problem. There are also some social events described in the book. Their importance for African Americans is unbelievable. But social realities remain unjust. And all this confine and demean Maya and her relatives. She comes to thoughts that living in racist society and so being under pressure shapes the character, both hers and the members of her family, but she finds some power to surmount them. The book was used for teacher education. As for censors, the prohibited book’s usage at school, because of some scenes, e. g. eight-year-old girl’s raping. To my mind, such books should present in school curriculums to prevent racism development or to teach children how to cooperate with such problems if it happens so. We discussed five different but, at the same time, so equal books.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The Effects of Jacksonian Democracy :: essays research papers

When John Quincy Adams was elected to the office of president of the United States in 1824, â€Å"hot headed† Jackson was infuriated. He started a campaign that would land him in the Whitehouse in 1828. With his place in office brought profound political change to America, and a direct effect that would last for the next 20 years after his two terms, until 1848. This time in American History is known as the Jacksonian Period, commonly referred to as the era of the â€Å"common Man.† It is reform movements and economic development that characterize this era. One of the reasons for the growth of the US economy was Jefferson's Embargo Act, which halted trade with all foreign countries, and forced the country to industrialize, by forcing it to produce goods domestically it would normally import. A classic case of "supply and demand" was seen by this growth of the factory system and industry; as the demand for more factories increased, the labor supply decreased, inciting a need for factory owners to hire more workers. Many of these workers were filled from the immigrant and middle class. Shifting roles in society, young women as well as children worked and lived at factories, during which they were overworked and underpaid. After earning enough to aid add sufficiently to the family income, the women left work at the factory, and back to their roles as housewives and child rearers. Along with Whitney's cotton gin, inventions in society came about. This was a stark contrast to pre Jacksonian rule out of which few inventions came: The decade ending in 1800 saw only 306 patents, while the decade ending in 1860 saw 26,000 patents. Elias Howe and Isaac Singer contributed to the clothing industry with their 1846 invention of the sewing machine. This contributed to northern industrialization, and when combined with the power of steam to produce an automatic sewing machine, it was capable of producing clothing on its own in large quantities with little supervision. John Deere helped to revolutionize farming once more with his invention of the steel plow in 1837. This plow enabled the "virgin soil" of Western lands to be broken, furthering agriculture. It was also light enough to be horse-drawn, which meant it was easily maneuverable. Cyrus McCormick's 1831 horse-drawn grass reaper enabled one man to do the work of five. This caused an abundance of c ash crops to be produced.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Techology Review

Technology Review Create a list of five educational games website: 1. Pbskids. org 2. Starfall. com 3. Ixl. com 4. FunBrain. com 5. abcmouse. com www. Ixl. com- IXL make math practices fun and motivate students through interactive games and practice questions. Widely recognized as the Web's most comprehensive math site, IXL offers a dynamic and enjoyable environment for children to practice math. Students who use IXL are succeeding like never before. With that said, this website allow teachers and parents to create accounts for their students, track their progress, and view a rich assortment of reports showing them just how their students are improving. It also enables students to correct their mistakes and master math concepts easily. With little training, it is very easy to use and manipulate. For a teacher and thirty students to have unlimited access to this educational Web-based technology for the whole year, the school or teacher must pay $199. This technology provides an excellent technical support. It is readily available at any point and time of day; twenty-four seven of the day. Many teachers have testify that this web-based technology help students to be stimulated, engaged, enthusiastic about math and reduces frustration out of math because it gives students the opportunity to practice at his or her own pace and keep them focused. www. FunBrain. com- Teachers can use or customize over 40,000 ready-made quizzes for all ages and grade levels, track student and class progress daily with instant analysis, and assign FunBrain games that build skills and correlate to national testing standards. Teachers can confidently encourage students to use Funbrain in the classroom during their free time, assured that kids will enjoy an educational, safe online learning experience. Funbrain's games help students build on what they have learned in class and acquire new skills in reading, math, and problem solving. Funbrain to delivers an easy, fun and safe experience for even the youngest children. It introduces preschoolers to the Internet and teaches them how to manipulate the mouse and keyboard. Funbrain is free of cost to students but teachers ought to pay $39. 95 membership fee yearly to have full access. This technology is available to teachers twenty four seven but I think students have access to it only at school. This personalized to help students of all ages take control of their learning and make it part of their everyday lives. www. Starfall. com- The Starfall reading program is designed to be fun, exciting, and to instill confidence in young children as they learn to read. This web-based technology provides clear and effective tools to help teachers implement proven teaching methods. The Starfall Website is easy for students to navigate independently, but it is not intended as a surrogate for the teacher. Starfall employs the computer to develop feelings of wonderment and play, not rote assessment. The activities, songs and books complement your classroom by creating an atmosphere of fun and enthusiasm that infuses all aspects of learning. This site is available to teachers and students twenty four seven and it’s free of charge. Technology Review1 Technology Review Joyce A. Sama EDU225: Instructional Technology January 18, 2012 Professor Tisha Faulkner – Grant Technology Review2 Starfall. com is a web based resource technology that can easily be integrated into most k-2 classrooms to enhance students’ language and literacy skills which can increase student learning. Starfall includes alphabet knowledge, cvc readers, emergent readers and seasonal interactive activities. The format is engaging and student-user friendly. Here are two ays Starfall could be integrated into the classroom setting. The teacher could use the projected on the Interactive white board during a whole group review or at the student’s computer centers when reviewing literacy skills. To use Starfall technology within the classroom, the teacher would need an internet connection and a computer or two. This is a free resource, all teacher may need is a projector, lap top and interactive white board for whole group activiti es and classroom computers or computer lab for the students to use independently. A teacher must also book mark Starfall by adding it on the computers toolbar. The bookmark has the words Starfall and an image of a star making it super easy to teach students what bookmark to click on to access Starfall. Starfall is making teaching more effective through the combination of educational games, online stories, and songs which is meeting the needs of those who are lacking in many areas with a fun and interesting activities. Technology Review3 There are three ways a teacher could integrate IXL into the classroom. One way is to [pic]take the work out of homework. This is what the teacher will have to do. For homework assignments, she could have the class work on IXL skills from their home. She must pick out skills that correspond to your lesson for the day, and then have the students reinforce their understanding of those skills on IXL. The next day, use IXL’s reporting suite to make sure that all the students completed their assignments, and to see how well they did! Another strategy she could use is to pair up IXL with the electronic whiteboard. IXL technology is compatible with all electronic whiteboards, so project the site onto your classroom e-board to involve the entire class. The teacher could have the students answer questions in turn, or even make a competition out of it. With this integration the students will be excited to show you the teacher what they’ve learned on IXL. The last way IXL could be integrated into the classroom is by making the most of the class lab time. Since IXL is accessible from anywhere, it’s the perfect way to make sure the students are learning valuable skills in the computer lab. Give the kids some IXL topics to work on, and be ready to marvel at how much fun they have earning medals and awards for mastering skills. Plus, the lab is one place you’ll be happy to have real-time progress updates as you are using IXL’s reporting suite to make sure everyone stays on task. Technology Review4 Here are few ways FunBrain. com could be integrated into classroom. One ways is the teacher setting up a learning center with the Smart Boards. Because Smart Boards are touchable, it gives student the opportunity to touch them with special markers and the screen respond. This versatile tool allows a wide range of teaching and learning option in the classroom. Funbrain. com could be projected on smart board so that the children can play math or language art games from the website. The teacher could use the FunBrain web-based technology to quiz students individually on a classroom desktop computer as a formative or summative assessment. Teachers could also use the FunBrain flashcard game as a review tool for the entire classroom. FunBrain. om also have an online activity called â€Å"Pain by Idioms† that provides examples of idioms which asks students to determine the real meaning of the phrases. Teachers could use this tool as a formative assessment to determine which students have mastered this skill. Another activity I found online that a teacher could integrate into her classroom is the activity called â€Å"Figurative Language Skits. The game is started by a student picking a card from deck of figurative language cards that has been design ed by the teacher, and must act out the word on the card until someone guesses the answer. For example, a student could act out running as fast as lightening or ducking cats and dogs as it rains. This activity appeals to spatial, verbal, interpersonal and kinesthetic learners, targeting different students who learn information in varying ways. Technology Review5 Reference www. Starfall. com/Aboutus Company Information. www. IXL. com http://www. ixl. com/membership/school/integration Facts about Us. www. FunBrain. com How to Integrate IXL into the Classroom. www. edutechlife. com Integrating FunBrain. www. eHow. com

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Effect of Colonialism on Gender Equality Relating to the Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao

When it comes to delegating responsibility, allocating power, and demanding equality, there always seems to be an underlying bias towards the masculine sector of society, which allows an imbalance regarding gender equality. Understanding where this way of thinking comes from is an essential part of trying to shift and completely erase the bias. Throughout history, a patriarchal pattern and way of thinking has been passed down from generation to generation; what we fail to see is the reason for this pattern and the ways in which we can remedy the situation.A great example of this issue is displayed in the novel, The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, by Junot Diaz. The female characters of Junot Diaz’s novel The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, La Inca, Beli, and Lola, demonstrate the ways in which colonialism led to the dehumanization of citizens, especially women, and how these power dynamics carry over into modern society in relationships between the majority and minority, b oth in terms of race and gender in their oppression and the stigma that is attached to being a Dominican immigrant women in America. There are three important women in the novel: La Inca, Beli, and Lola.Each are strong women who battle each other, men, the fuku, their past, their color, and–most important the fact that they are women. One can argue that this habit of undermining the female population comes all the way from when colonialism began to take place. Not only did this Western idea of colonizing mean degrading those that were more, barbaric and unfortunate. â€Å".. we must study how colonization works to decivilize the colonizer,to brutalize him in the true sense of the word, to degrade him, to awaken him to buried instincts, to covetousness, violence, race hatred, and moral relativism. (Cesaire 35) But it was from this that the idea of judging humans by their appearance came about and began to exist. Prior to this the idea of looking and judging by color, gender a nd physical appearance was non-existent. What we fail to see as a society is the realness of this matter, the fact that still in the 21st century this idea of inequality hits almost every single female in one way or another, affecting even the capability to sustain themselves economically because of the still present gender gap in salary wages. This struggle is specifically seen in foreign females residing in America.Junot Diaz in his novel very craftily, with much use of heteroglossia- the presence of two or more voices, discourses, or expressed viewpoints in a text or other artistic work and uncensored truth displays this with his female characters. Lola, represents the first generation American Hispanic female who struggles with finding a balance of her spanish culture and the urge of freeing herself from the stereotype she is expected to uphold. In her journey to oppose such characterization, and as a modern Dominican girl she could only push and dream on. â€Å"with promises t hat once I reached college I would be able to do whatever I pleased, burst out.I couldn’t help it†¦ It was a message more than a feeling, a message that tolled like a bell: change, change, change. † (Diaz 58) This feeling of hope is what drives and keeps many women working hard and pushing for positive changes still to this day. But the constant tag of war with essentialism- belief that a group of pe2ople exhibit traits, characteristics, or behaviors that are essential to their nature and membership to that group, is what drove Lola to the verge of insanity. â€Å"What it’s like to be the perfect Dominican daughter, which is just a nice way of saying Dominican slave. (Diaz 56) She fought like a mad cat for justice, freedom and opportunities. Basic human rights, but not for the average foreign female in the U. S. Her battle was seen as her â€Å"crazy years.. what Dominican girl doesn’t have those? † (Diaz 24) Her sense of independence and brav ery is taken and classified just merely because she is an ethnic female. â€Å"She’d turned into one of those Jersey dominicanas, a long distance runner who drover her own car, had her own checkbook, called men bitches, and would eat a fat cat in front of you without a speck of verguenza. (Diaz 25) To call such attitude honorable would be out of the question because to society she is stepping out of what her stereotype is suppose to be.On the other hand, feminism to traditional La Inca was never even a thought. La Inca is part of the female group that accepts the oppression and her given expected role in society. Instead of fighting against it she lives her entire life trying to maintain and protect her assigned role â€Å"La Inca, you see, was a serious woman, an upstanding woman, one of the best in her class. (Diaz 102) She fought hard to keep the status of her family up high, she is the result of a woman from a colonized country. She knows nothing more than what she is g iven and refuses and is scared to venture. La Inca is the traditional dominican mom, her only wish was for her daughter, Beli to succeed and achieve what she could not. But like many traditional mothers she wanted her daughter to stay rooted in her culture, just the mere thoughts of Beli going to the â€Å"extranjero† brought her anger â€Å" The U. S. was nothing more and nothing less than a pais overrun by gangsters, putas, and no-accounts. (Diaz 158) La Inca lives by what society has taught her to be, to do things for the well being of the men in society, to take care of the home but more importantly to stay at the bottom of the chain and not even think about fighting it. The fight against what colonialism has built the female population to be was started thanks to women like Beli. She represent the females who were tired of living the role they were given.â€Å"Beli could no longer abide working at the bakery or being the â€Å"daughter† of one of the â€Å"most upstanding women in Bani. † She could not abide, period†¦ hat she wanted, more than anything, was what she’d always wanted throughout her Lost Childhood: to escape. † (Diaz 80) She was able to detach herself and learn that there is more to life than what she was told. It is thanks to females like her that we are becoming aware of how far down colonialism has push females. That the â€Å"worship of women as objects of chivalric adoration† (Kaplan 107) should not be, society makes females feel â€Å"invited to imagine themselves participating in the adventures of empire as a means of rejoicing traditional roles. (Kaplan 110) This is what the support of imperial conquest has created. Hypatia Belicia Cabral, a lost dominican single mother in the U. S trying to escape from the culture that expects her to fulfill a given role. Colonialism allowed the lessening of a person just because of an aspect of their look or status.Just as Aime Cesaire states,  ".. while colonialism in its formal sense might have been dismantled, the colonial state has not. Many of the problems of democracy are products of the old colonial state whose primary difference is the presence of black faces. (Cesaire 27) This being a clear example of Oscar, who even in a new country with endless possibilities to succeed still drags on with him that curse of fuku and the result of colonialism as his cross which leads him to find a way to not succeed. Judged by his skin color and his constant battle of achieving the mastering of this male chauvinism, that also came as a result of colonialism and its oppression of woman. The reality is that colonization taught human beings to â€Å"dehumanizes even the most civilized man. † (Cesaire 41) It allowed this concept of â€Å"ownership† and superiority of a race against another- creating an evil chain.Wealthy men were the owners of less fortunate men, and as a result of chauvinism, men were the owners of wome n. â€Å"Colonial activity, colonial enterprise, colonial conquest, which is based on contempt for the native and justified by that contempt, inevitably tends to change him who undertakes it; that the colonizer, who in order to ease his conscience gets into the habit of seeing the other man as an animal accustoms himself to treating him like an animal, and tends objectively to transform himself into an animal. (Cesaire 27) Colonialism began to build a pyramid of levels of importance in society, placing wealthy men at the top following by the rest of the men population and lastly are those wealthy and educated woman; that regardless how hard they try could never climb up the set social cast as we see in the battle of Lola against this very restricted stereotype she gets casted into. Although many of these casted minorities move to the United States in search of freedom and equality, as Beli did in order to â€Å"escape,† many of them instead find a world heavenly still conden sed in the social dynamics carried over from colonialism.American domination – the only domination from which one never recovers. I mean from which one never recovers unscarred. † (Cesaire 77) As the ethnocentric country that we are, we like to criticize other nations in the way they handle their national issues but this is merely part of colonization, a skill that the United States as a whole has down to the most specific detail. By doing so the nation as a whole makes it that much easier for members of such colonized countries to undergo the process of which colonization becomes epidermalization- â€Å"The interiorisation of an inferiority complex based on socioeconomic inequalities. Such experience that all the characters in The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao undergo and are in constant conflict with. As a nation of great power we possess many great attributes but lack immensely in the topic of equality of genders. Judging rulers of other countries such as Chavez, Castro and Hitler, when these rulers had so much more to offer their woman in comparison to the United States.Although they committed crimes of which none are applaud for, what we don’t like to state and teach is that in spite of all this â€Å"wrong†, women in these particular countries received the support and were asked to better themselves and contribute to the economical development of their own nation. â€Å"By any standards, the position of women in Cuba ranks among the highest indices of equality of treatment and opportunities. † (Women In Cuba) In Venezuela Chavez receives the support of thousands of women, both in government and outside. Tania Diaz, governing party candidate for the capital district and previously minister of communications, said the aim of the activity was to support the president†¦. Since the government came to power women’s opportunities for development and for participation in Venezuelan society had multiplied. † (Pearson) While in Hitlers world, women were encouraged to train and become strong in order to become competitive with the male population and thus take part in the advancement of the Nazi nation. Hitler provided places for the female youth to learn and support each other in such advancements.These youth group was called the League of German Girls, founded in 1930. An important part of life in the League of German Girls was to help the girls build character, and to prepare them for what were supposed to be their future tasks within the Nazi Volksgemeinschaft, or people's community, by getting them involved in programs that were for the â€Å"good of the people† (Chris Crawford and Stephan Hansen) Empowering woman was something that was done in these nation, had These nations although accused of being some of the most dehumanizing, underdeveloped societies, have more opportunity and support for all of their women citizens.Allowing them to become just as competitive in the wor k force and every other aspect of society. While in America the gap between male and female equality is still so spread, and even more so the gap between male and an ethnic female. The power of oppression towards women as a result of colonialism and how these power dynamics carry over into our modern society is something that we must begin to shift. That although America tries to escape from being called a colonizer, we have become victims of our own poison. â€Å"Domestic and foreign spaces are closer than we think, and that the dynamics of imperil expansion cast them into jarring proximity. (Kaplan 1)Cesaire, Aime Discourse on Colonialism, 1955 Edition Presence Africaine Chris Crawford and Stephan Hansen, http://bdmhistory. com/research/main. html#two, copyright 2003-2008. Diaz, Junot The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, 2007 Penguin Group (USA) Inc. Kaplan, Amy The Anarchy of Empire In the Making of U. S Culture, 2002 President and Fellows of Harvard College ?Pearson, Tamara, à ¢â‚¬Å"Venezuelan Women Swear to be â€Å"Guardians† of Chavez in?Response to CNN,† VENEZUELANALYSIS. COM, http://venezuelanalysis. com/news/5644 Women in cuba- http://www. cuba-solidarity. org. uk/

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Nations & Nationalism essays

Nations & Nationalism essays When discussing the concept of nation, there are two nuances of the word that come to mind. The first relates to politics and geography and explains the concept as a land separated by boundaries. The second is a much larger concept and describes more a people than a country. The second concept somewhat embraces the first and cover a larger number of people. Let's just briefly exemplify this and move on to refer to some of the textbooks and how they divide the concepts. If we are to consider the French nation, the geographical concept of nation strictly delimitates the French nation as belonging to the French state, that is, conscribed by the boundaries that have been traced with time and that are identified with the French territory. However, the French nation as seen in the second concept, is much larger: it takes into account the people of French nationality from Switzerland, from Belgium, those working at the science centers in Antarctica or those in diplomatic missions over the world. Let's have a more analytical look at the two concepts and for this, we can refer to Chapter 7, where a Siam geography lesson is presented. The lesson is rather simple, as it describes a discussion between an uncle and his two nephews, however, the definition of the nation that is revealed is quite profound. As the uncle puts it here, "continents are divided into nations. Many nations are all different. China is one big country; Siam is a small one". Just as the oceans and the continents, the nation is a geographical element that can form a description of the Earth. In fact, it is the smallest undividable element of the Earth's geography. This is a first definition that we receive for a nation. Just as the oceans and continents that are circumscribed by the boundaries of each other a nation is defined as such through its boundaries. Boundaries make a country like ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Is the brain simply a computer essays

Is the brain simply a computer essays IS THE BRAIN IS SIMPLY A COMPUTER MADE OF MEAT? The brain is simply a computer made out of meat. First and foremost what is a brain and what is a computer? Chambers dictionary (Chambers 21st century dictionary, 1999) defines the brain, as a highly developed mass of nervous tissue that coordinates and controls the activities of the central nervous system of animals. It defines a computer as an electronic device, which processes data at great speed according to a program stored within the device. The brain is conscious and it controls most of the activity done by human such as seeing, feeling, moving, thinking to mention just a few. If the brain is simply a computer made of meat, then the computer should be conscious. Now lets define what we mean by being conscious. According to Chambers dictionary (Chambers 21st century dictionary, 1999) to be conscious is to be awake, alert and aware of ones thoughts and ones surroundings or the part of the mind that is aware of a persons self, surroundings, and thoughts and that to a certain extent determines choices of action. The computer is just a machine and it is not possible for a machine to be conscious. If a machine is conscious then it should be aware of its surroundings. A computer is not aware of its surroundings it can differentiate between being in one room and then taken to another. Now lets look at the question is the brain simply a computer made of meat? in the context of Artificial intelligence. Artificial Intelligence has come a long way from its early roots, driven by dedicated researchers. The beginnings of AI reach back before electronics, to philosophers and mathematicians such as Boole and others theorizing on principles that were used as the foundation of AI Logic. AI really began to intrigue researchers with the invention of the computer in 1943. The technology was finally available, or so it seemed, to simulate i...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

History Facts and Trivia from the 20th Century

History Facts and Trivia from the 20th Century While texting is relatively new, some of the abbreviations we use for it are much older than we might think. For instance, the abbreviation OMG for Oh My God! dates back to as early as 1917. The earliest reference found is in a letter dated September 9, 1917, from Lord John Arbuthnot Fisher to Winston Churchill. In the last line of Lord Fishers short letter about newspaper headlines that were upsetting him, Lord Fisher wrote: I hear that a new order of Knighthood is on the tapis O.M.G. (Oh! My God!) Shower it on the Admiralty!! John Steinbeck and Pigasus Author John Steinbeck, best known for his epic novel The Grapes of Wrath, used to often add a symbol next to his name when signing things. This symbol was a pig with wings, whom Steinbeck called Pigasus. The flying pig was a reminder that although earthbound, it was good to aspire to something higher. Sometimes Steinbeck would add in Latin, Ad Astra Per Alia Porci (to the stars on the wings of a pig). Practice Suicide Runs On November 18, 1978, Jim Jones, leader of the Peoples Temple cult, ordered all his followers living in his Jonestown compound to drink poisoned grape-flavored punch in order to commit mass suicide. On that day, 912 people (including 276 children) died in what has become known as the Jonestown Massacre. How could one person convince over 900 others to commit suicide? Well, Jim Jones had been planning to carry out this revolutionary act of mass suicide for quite some time. To ensure full compliance, Jones had staged practice runs, called White Nights, in which he would order everyone to drink what he told them was poisoned punch. After everyone had stood around for about 45 minutes or so, he would then tell them that this had been a loyalty test. The Dots in Pac-Man When the Pac-Man video game was released in 1980, it quickly became an international sensation. As kids and adults alike moved the pie-shaped Pac-Man character around the screen, they tried to eat up lots of dots without themselves getting eaten by ghosts. But how many dots were they trying to eat? It turns out that each level of Pac-Man had the exact same number of dots 240. Lincoln Logs Created by Frank Lloyd Wrights Son Lincoln Logs is a classic childrens toy that has been played by millions of children for decades. The toy usually comes in a box or cylinder and includes both brown logs and green slats for roofs, which children use to build their own frontier house or fort. Despite playing with Lincoln Logs for hours and hours as a child, you might not know that they were created by John Lloyd Wright, the son of famous architect Frank Lloyd Wright, and were first sold by Red Square Toy Company in 1918. It would be easy to assume that Wright got the idea for Lincoln Logs by visiting an old log cabin, but that is not the case. Wright was in Japan helping his father build the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo when the idea for interlocking pieces struck him. It would also be easy to assume that the name Lincoln Logs refers to U.S. President Abraham Lincolns log cabin, but that too is not the case. The name Lincoln actually refers to the discarded original middle name of Johns father, Frank Lloyd Wright (he was born Frank Lincoln Wright). Lenin Was a Pseudonym Russian revolutionary Vladimir Ilich Lenin, also commonly called V.I. Lenin or just plain Lenin was actually not born with that name. Lenin was born as Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov and didnt begin using the pseudonym of Lenin until the age of 31. Up until that age, Lenin, still known as Ulyanov, had used his birth name for both his legal and illegal activities. However, having just returned from a three-year exile in Siberia, Ulyanov found it useful to begin writing under a different name in 1901 in order to continue his revolutionary work. Brad Pitt and the Iceman What do Brad Pitt and the Iceman have in common? Tattoos. Although the 5,300-year-old mummified remains of the Iceman, known as Otzi, was found with over 50 tattoos on his body, most of them were simple lines. Brad Pitt, on the other hand, had an outline of the Icemans body tattooed onto his left forearm in 2007. Juan Perons Hands While serving his third, non-consecutive term as President of Argentina, Juan Peron died on July 1, 1974, at age 78. His rule had been controversial, with many adoring him and others reviling him. After his death, his body was injected with formaldehyde and interred at La Chacarita Cemetery in Buenos Aires. In 1987, grave robbers opened up Perons coffin, cut off his hands and stole them, along with his sword and cap. The robbers then sent a ransom letter asking for $8 million to return the hands. Once the desecration was discovered, Perons body was sealed behind a bulletproof plate and 12 heavy-duty locks. On October 17, 2006, Perons body was moved to a mausoleum at Perons country home in San Vicente, just outside of Buenos Aires. The grave robbers have never been found. Catch-18 Joseph Hellers famous novel, Catch-22, was first published in 1961. Set in World War II, the book is a comic satirical novel about bureaucracy. The phrase Catch 22 in the novel is used to denote the vicious circle of military bureaucracy. The term Catch 22 has made it into mainstream usage to mean any two choices that are mutually dependent (for example, which came first: the chicken or the egg?). However, the term we now know as Catch 22 was almost Catch 18 for Heller had originally chosen Catch-18 as the title of the book. Unfortunately for Heller, Leon Uris published his Mila 18 novel just before Hellers book was to be published. Hellers publisher didnt think it would be good to have two books out at the same time with 18 in the title. Attempting to come up with another name, Heller and his publisher considered Catch-11, Catch-17, and Catch-14 before deciding on the title we all know, Catch-22. Insulin Discovered in 1922 Medical researcher Frederick Banting and research assistant Charles Best studied the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas of dogs at the University of Toronto. Banting believed that he could find a cure for the sugar disease (diabetes) in the pancreas. In 1921, they isolated insulin and successfully tested in on diabetic dogs, lowering the dogs blood sugar level. Researcher John Macleod and chemist James Collip then began to help prepare insulin for human use. On January 11, 1922, Leonard Thompson, a 14-year-old boy who was dying of diabetes, was given the first human experimental dose of insulin. The insulin saved his life. In 1923, Banting and Macleod were awarded the Nobel Prize for their work on discovering insulin. What was once a death sentence, people now diagnosed with diabetes can live long lives thanks to the work of these men. Why Is Roosevelt on the Dime? In 1921, when Franklin D. Roosevelt was stricken with a bout of polio that left him partially paralyzed, there were no organizations to lend support. Although Roosevelt had the money for the very best treatments for himself, he realized that there were thousands of others who did not. Also, at the time, there was no known cure for polio. In 1938, President Roosevelt helped establish the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (which later became known as the March of Dimes). This foundation was created to help care for polio patients and to help fund research to find a cure. Funding from the March of Dimes helped Jonas Salk discover a vaccine for polio. Soon after President Franklin D. Roosevelts death in 1945, the public started sending letters to the United States Treasury Department requesting that Roosevelts portrait be placed on a coin. The dime seemed the most appropriate coin because of Roosevelts ties to the March of Dimes. The new dime was released to the public on Roosevelts birthday, January 30, 1946. The Nickname Tin Lizzie Priced so that the average American could afford it, Henry Ford sold his Model T from 1908 until 1927. Many also may know the Model T by its nickname, the Tin Lizzie. But how did the Model T get its nickname? In the early 1900s, car dealers would try to create publicity for their new automobiles by hosting car races. In 1922, a championship race was held in Pikes Peak, Colorado. Entered as one of the contestants was Noel Bullock and his Model T, named Old Liz. Since Old Liz looked the worse for wear (it was unpainted and lacked a hood), many spectators compared Old Liz to a tin can. By the start of the race, the car had the new nickname of Tin Lizzie. To everyones surprise, Tin Lizzie won the race. Having beaten even the most expensive other cars available at the time, Tin Lizzie proved both the durability and speed of the Model T. The surprise win of Tin Lizzie was reported in newspapers across the country, leading to the use of the nickname Tin Lizzie for all Model T cars. Hoover Flags When the U.S. stock market crashed in 1929, President Herbert Hoover attempted to stop the U.S. economy from spiraling into what has become known as the Great Depression. Although President Hoover took action, most people agree that it just wasnt enough. Upset at Hoover, people began to give items that represented the economic crisis negative nicknames. For instance, shanty towns became known as Hoovervilles. Hoover blankets were newspapers that homeless people used to protect themselves from the cold. Hoover flags were pants pockets that had been turned inside out, symbolizing a lack of money. Hoover wagons were old cars pulled by horses since their owners could no longer pay for gas. The First Dot Com Surrounded by dot extensions, have you ever stopped to wonder what website was the very first to be a dot-com? That honor was claimed on March 15, 1985, when registered their domain name. Tug-of-War Since tug-of-war has been a game played by adults for centuries, it became an official event at the second modern Olympic Games in 1900. However, its time as an official Olympic event was short-lived and it was last played at the Olympics at the 1920 Games. Tug-of-war was not the only event to be added and then later removed from the Olympic Games; golf, lacrosse, rugby, and polo also shared its fate. The First Star on the Walk of Fame On February 9, 1960, the very first star was awarded to actress Joanne Woodward. Within a year and half, over 1,500 of the stars were filled with names. Currently, over 2,300 of the stars have been awarded and two new stars are awarded each month. Barbies Full Name (co-founder of Mattel) after she realized that her daughter liked to play with paper dolls that resembled grown-ups. Handler suggested making a three-dimensional doll that looked like an adult rather than a child. The doll was named after Handlers daughter, Barbara, and is still produced by Mattel. The dolls full name is Barbara Millicent Roberts.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Discussion post Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Discussion post - Essay Example Acute pain serves the purpose of a warning of existing tissue damage, and this is supposed to alert the patient to seek medical advice (Porth & Hannon, 2009). Chronic pain takes a long time that it is anticipated after the patient suffers from an injury. It is characterized by psychological behavior that is exhibited by signs such as depression, irritability, and depression. On the other hand, visceral pain originates from visceral parts and is caused by an illness. It is in regard to typical parts of the body of the similar dermatome. The general visceral pain syndromes are pains related to ovarian disease, liver disease, pancreatitis, cholecystitis and uterine diseases. I agree with Kim Pappas that pains are different and therefore the treatment given is different. The acute pain duration is between seconds, days and six months, while chronic pain takes a long time from six months to years. In chronic pain can be treated using cannabis, nerve blocks, biofeedback, acupuncture, painkillers, and narcotics magnets. Acute pain is treated to prevent the pain from developing to chronic pain. Moreover, somatic pain is as a result of activation of pain receivers in musculoskeletal or body surface organs. Patients suffering from the pain describe it as aching or dull (Porth & Hannon, 2009). I agree with Josyln Pridgen on presentation of bipolar disorder and generalized anxiety disorder in patients. The diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder must meet the diagnosis as required by DSm to determine if the client suffers from social impairment or clinically. The illness is characterized by low standard of life and increasing disability. The disability is in terms of impairment of work and distress and takes duration of two weeks to six months (Montgomery, 2009). Bipolar disorder is also called manic depression disease, and it causes mood swings in a patient. There are two mood swings that are mania and depression. During depression condition, the

Friday, October 18, 2019

Laurence Oliviers Hamlet Film Movie Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Laurence Oliviers Hamlet Film - Movie Review Example Discussion: In a chronological approach to the assessment, reviews from 1948 will first be examined. In his New York Times reviews, in September 1948, Bosley Crowther was almost lyrical in his praise. As mentioned earlier, he cited the power of the camera use, as it With regard to the cuts, which included some soliloquies and the characters, Rosencrantz, Guildenstern and Fortinbras, Crowther is dismissive, considering cutting these to be "judicious editing" that "has given much greater clarity to its noted complexities" (1948). It appeared that this reviewer glossed over the Freudian, Oedipal context that many others identified, stating that Although the piece in Variety magazine was less intellectual in content and approach, it did touch on similar thematic aspects. The article, produced by Variety Staff, was completely positive and celebrated everything about the film. The cuts were dismissed as: Again, the review did not linger on the Oedipal content, emphasizing the concept, taken from the opening voice-over, of "the tragedy of a man who couldn't make up his mind" (Olivier, 1948) The camera work was given praise and importance, as "deep-focus photography" and "bold crane-shots" that speed the action and give "grandeur and spaciousness" (Variety, 1948) Olivier's own thoughts and explanations were published as extracts from his book, "Hamlet: The Film and the Play", in September 1948 in the New York Times. He justified the cuts on the basis that the play "is very seldom played in its entirety, even on the stage." (Olivier, 1948). While he accepted that many Shakespeare purists might and did object, he had a valid point that needs to be included here. By creating a cinematic representation, he intended to make Shakespeare accessible to all. "But think for a moment of the audience reached by the film, who never go to a theatre.." (Olivier, 1948) His comments on the power of the camera to "nose into corners and magnify details that escape notice or pass muster on the stage," echoed the views expressed in the reviews discussed here. His thoughts are included here, not only to illustrate his motives, but also to underline that his intentions seemed to have succeeded, judging by the responses at the time. Recent reviews, arising from the re-issue of the film on DVD in 2000, carry the same positive responses and echo the themes identified so long ago. This would suggest that the film has the enduring power of the classic, a description fully deserved. In an email thread that reiterates this contention, Brian

The American National Security Issue Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The American National Security Issue - Essay Example The previous weeks, the refinement of ‘no military solution to Islamist problem’ mantra, came from the admiral, who is also the public spokesman of the Pentagon. In his press conference with the journalist, something akin to America is fighting an ideology that military power had no ability to defeat came out (Byman, 2014). No questions concerning the ideology materialized on the spoken date with the journalists. From the above events, it is easier to conclude that neither the journalist nor the admiral has ever came across the notion called National Socialism. The National Socialism, utterly overcome by the military ability of the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union. In addition to the above, the American Civil War by Grant Sheridan and Sherman used unrelenting military force to guarantee individual rights and freedom. In my view, the Islamic State is one of the many United States military ally. The view of the politicians that the military is not worth a tinker in fighting the mujahideen rebels is a cover up of the truth. One of the underlying factors to these sentiments, is on the fact that the larger organization of the IS holds large arrays of material assets that are more likely to get permanently destroyed if aerial attacks occur (Byman, 2014).

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Altria Group Inc. (MO) and Philip Morris International, Inc. (PM) Essay

Altria Group Inc. (MO) and Philip Morris International, Inc. (PM) - Essay Example Over the years, the company has introduced different product lines with different brand names in order to attract different types of customers. This aspect has played a significant role in reducing the risks and uncertainties associated with concentrating on a single product. Beside tobacco it has focused on wine production. Some of the wine brands include; Chateau Ste Michelle, Snoqualmie, Erath. The company has a definite structure led by the board of directors. In addition, the company is divided into different departments depending on the area of specialization. This is to ensure that each sector specializes on a specific task. For instance, marketing and financial sectors operate differently. This has enabled the subordinates to work independently and maximize on their areas of specialization. This aspect has been critical in the overall success of the company. Philip Morris International, Inc. (PM) is a global multinational firms based in United States that deal with cigarette and tobacco production. The company’s products are sold in over 200 countries across the world. The company is mainly known for its best selling product of Malboro (Luo 352). With over 15% of its products being sold outside the United States, the firm has been able to penetrate and segment the global market. This is despite the increasing levels of competition which has emanated from the entry of multinational companies which have a huge financial base to position their products strategically in the market and create a barrier of entry for other interested investors. Before, 2008, Philip Morris International, Inc. (PM) was an operating company under the Altria Group. The idea behind the formation of the company was to provide the firm with an opportunity to pursue the emerging markets. This was aimed at increasing sales and revenues of the firm and enabling the company to avoid the challenges faced by companies in relation to US corporate ownership. The firm’s

History Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 11

History - Assignment Example The state of Pennsylvania introduced a prison with the prisoners stayed alone and were given bibles to keep them company. The Auburn system was adapted by most of the states where the prisoners slept in solitary cells and were allowed to work in groups and the prisons products were sold to the outside market (Zinn 20). The middle class evangelicals had an assumption that crime; family violence, poverty, poverty and most of the social ills were linked to massive alcoholism (Douglass, Blassingame and McKivigan 17). They argued that a country with sober citizens would lead to a crime free society with minimal or no violence at all. The country will be characterized with happy homes and less noisy streets. Other reformed includes those from the utopians; it became radical to abolitions and feminists. Most of the members who formed the first convention on women rights were all from the antislavery and missionary societies in the world. They attacked hierarchy and patriarchy in all the possible forms (Stanton et al. 12). Majority of the women started from realizing their personal perspective that the social reforms applied mostly to them and started thinking of themselves as humans and women respectively. Then there was the convention of the Seneca Falls that recognized noted the teachings of Jesus that made distinction between the roles of men and women (Moses 20). Women at the convention came up with a manifesto known as The Declaration of Sentiments that was based on the declaration of independence. They specifically wanted to be given their rights to vote and complained that the political system of the American people separated those people who count from those who don’t. The ideology of the northern social reforms applied to slavery more clearly than to any other institution. The talk of the American Revolution of universal natural rights lead to the creation of conundrum regarding the

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Altria Group Inc. (MO) and Philip Morris International, Inc. (PM) Essay

Altria Group Inc. (MO) and Philip Morris International, Inc. (PM) - Essay Example Over the years, the company has introduced different product lines with different brand names in order to attract different types of customers. This aspect has played a significant role in reducing the risks and uncertainties associated with concentrating on a single product. Beside tobacco it has focused on wine production. Some of the wine brands include; Chateau Ste Michelle, Snoqualmie, Erath. The company has a definite structure led by the board of directors. In addition, the company is divided into different departments depending on the area of specialization. This is to ensure that each sector specializes on a specific task. For instance, marketing and financial sectors operate differently. This has enabled the subordinates to work independently and maximize on their areas of specialization. This aspect has been critical in the overall success of the company. Philip Morris International, Inc. (PM) is a global multinational firms based in United States that deal with cigarette and tobacco production. The company’s products are sold in over 200 countries across the world. The company is mainly known for its best selling product of Malboro (Luo 352). With over 15% of its products being sold outside the United States, the firm has been able to penetrate and segment the global market. This is despite the increasing levels of competition which has emanated from the entry of multinational companies which have a huge financial base to position their products strategically in the market and create a barrier of entry for other interested investors. Before, 2008, Philip Morris International, Inc. (PM) was an operating company under the Altria Group. The idea behind the formation of the company was to provide the firm with an opportunity to pursue the emerging markets. This was aimed at increasing sales and revenues of the firm and enabling the company to avoid the challenges faced by companies in relation to US corporate ownership. The firm’s

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Law - Civil Proecdure (Hong Kong) [4 Questions] Essay

Law - Civil Proecdure (Hong Kong) [4 Questions] - Essay Example 2). Ms. Cheung sought to have the proceedings stayed because of fundamental unfairness, stating that the conditions were appropriate to stay the proceedings in the interest of justice (Securities and Futures Ordinance, Cap. 571,  § 253(1(i); Jago v. District Court of New South Wales (1989) 168 CLR 23). In this case, the tribunal relied upon the rules promulgated at this time in Hong Kong Civil Procedure 2008, which states that â€Å"there are two distinct, though related, circumstances in which the action may be dismissed for want of prosecution, namely (a) when a party has been guilty of intentional and contumelious default, and (b) when there has been inordinate and inexcusable delay in the prosecution of the action† (Hong Kong Civil Procedure 2008, order 25, at 25/L/2). ... their death or disappearance are the most usual factors†¦in a case of prolonged culpable delay following long delays in serving of proceedings, the court may readily infer that memories of witnesses has further deteriorated in the period of culpable delay† (Hong Kong Civil Procedure 2008, order 25, at 25/L/7). Thus, the delay must result in the increased risk that the defendant will not have a fair trial on the issues or that serious prejudice will occur to the defendant as the result of the delay, because the witnesses will have decreased memories about the facts regarding the proceedings. The term prejudice has been construed to result when no witness was interviewed at the time the acts that give rise to the proceedings were commenced, so that the witness would have no way of refreshing his or her recollection about the events, or that a witness has since become unavailable because of advanced age or infirmity, and this witness would have been available but-for the inor dinate delay (Hornagold v. Fairclough Building Ltd. [1993] P.L.Q.R. 400). Further, the totality of the delay is not necessarily relevant in adducing prejudice to the defendant, but, rather, that any period of delay during any part of the proceedings would be examined to determine prejudice – therefore, if a proceeding began after a period of delay, then no action was taken thereafter, the court can infer from the delay during the latter part of the proceedings is enough to cause the dimming or memories such that the defendant would be prejudiced by the delay (Roebuck v. Mungovin [1994] 2 AC 224). Further, the defendant did not necessarily need to prove that he or she was prejudiced, and did not have to present to the court any example of a specific example of prejudice, ie, the defendant does

Capital Market Essay Example for Free

Capital Market Essay ~ Capital market is the market for leading and borrowing of medium and long term funds. ~ The demand for long-term funds comes from industry, trade, agriculture and government (central and state). ~ The supply for funds comes from individual savers, corporate savings, banks, insurance companies, specialized financial institutions and government. *SIGNIFICANCE: ~ A sound and efficient capital market is extremely vital for the economic development of a nation. ~ So, the significance of capital market has increased. ~ The following points clearly bring out the role and significance of capital market in India. i)CAPITAL FORMATION: ~ Capital market encourages capital formation as it ensures speedy economic development. The process of capital formation includes collection of saving effective mobilisation of these savings for productive investment. ~ Thus three distinctive inter-related activities i.e. collection of savings, mobilisation of savings and investment lead to capital formation in the country. ~ The volume of capital formation depend s on the efficiency and intensity with which these activities are carried on. ii) ECONOMIC GROWTH: ~ Capital market plays a vital role in the growth and development of an economy by channelising funds in developmental and productive investments. ~ The financial intermediaries channel funds into those investments that are more important for economic development. iii) INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT: ~ Capital market promotes industrial development and motivates industrial entrepreneurship. ~ It provides cheap, adequate and diversified funds for industrial purposes such as expansion, modernisation, technological upgradation, establishment of new units, etc. ~ It also provides services like provision of underwriting facilities, participation in equity capital, credit-rating, consultancy services, etc. vi) MODERNISATION AND REHABILITATION OF INDUSTRIES: ~ Capital markets also contribute towards modernisation and rehabilitation of industries. ~ Developmental financial institutions like IDBI, IFCI, ICICI, etc provide finance to industries to adopt modern techniques and new upgraded machinery. ~ They also participate in the equity capital of industries. v) RIVIVAL OF SICK UNITS: ~ Commercial and financial institutions provide adequate funds to viable sick unit to overcome their industrial sickness. ~ Bank and FIs may also write off a part of the loan or re-schedule the loan to offer payment flexibility to weak units. vi) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE: ~ The financial intermediaries in the capital market stimulate industrial entrepreneurship by providing technical and advisory services like preparation of feasibility reports, identifying growth potential, and training entrepreneurs in project management. ~ This promotes industrial investment and leads to economic development. vii) DEVELOPMENT OF BACKWARD AREAS: ~ Capital markets provide funds for projects in backward area and facilitate their economic development. ~ Long-term funds are also provided for development projects in backward / rural areas. viii) EMPLOYMENT GENERATION: ~ Capital markets provide Direct Employment in capital market related activities like stock markets, banks and financial institutions. ~ Indirect Employment is provided in all the sectors of the economy through various funds disbursed for developmental projects. ix) FOREIGN CAPITAL: ~ Capital markets make it possible to generate foreign capital by enabling Indian firms to raise capital from overseas market through bonds and other securities. ~ Such foreign exchange funds have a great impact on the economic development of the nation. ~ Moreover, foreign direct investments (FDIs) also bring in foreign capital as well as foreign technology that leads to greater economic development. x) DEVELOPMENT OF STOCK MARKETS: ~ Capital markets lead to development of stock markets by encouraging investors to invest in shares and debentures and to trade in stocks. ~ FIIs are also allowed to deal in Indian stock exchange. xi) FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: ~ Financial institutions play a major role in capital markets. ~ They provide medium / long term loan to industrial and other sectors and also undertake project feasibility studies and surveys. ~ They refinance commercial banks and rediscount their bills of exchange. ~ They provide merchant banking services. ~ They subscribe to equity capital of the firms. xii) INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY: ~ Capital markets provide various alternative sources of investment to the people. ~ People can invest in shares and debentures of public companies and earn good returns. xiii) INVESTMENT IN INDUSTRIAL SECURITIES: ~ Secondary market in securities encourage investors to invest in industrial securities by providing facilities for continuous, regular and ready buying and selling of these securities. ~ This facilitates industries to raise substantial funds from various sectors of the economy. xiv) RELIABLE GUIDE TO PERFORMANCE: ~ Capital market serves as a reliable guide to the performance of corporate institutions. ~ It values companies accurately and thus promotes efficiency. ~ This leads to efficient resource allocation and economic development. *CONCLUSION: ~ Thus we can say that capital markets play a crucial role in the economic development of a nation. ~ A sound and efficient capital market is one of the most instrumental factors in the development of a nation.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Planning Activities to Meet Individual Needs in a Child

Planning Activities to Meet Individual Needs in a Child Nisha Patel (1) Explain the benefits for children when their individual needs are met. In the setting as every child is different, it is important to think about, plan for, and interact with the individual, as well as the group as a whole. Consider the range of children’s styles, social interactions and personalities: Some are quiet; others are noisy Some like to spend time by themselves; others are the life of the party Some are shy; others are outgoing Some are active; others are quiet Some enter into new situations easily; others like to stand back and watch There are differences in cultural and language backgrounds, life experiences, temperament, interests, skills and talents. If you are a new staff member, talk to colleagues who already know the children. Take advantage of what they know and how they see the child. A caution however: try not to use ‘labels’ and fixed ways of seeing a child. Everyone sees and relates to people differently. It may be hard to both listen to what others say and form your own opinion, but do try to keep an open mind about a child who is considered difficult or challenging in some way. Ask if you can look at the enrolment forms. They may have non-confidential information that could be useful to you in getting to know a child. Talking formally to the child’s family. They will have great insights about the child. Learn from their perspectives. Help nurture a culture among staff of talking to each other about children and sharing insights. Learn children’s names, greet them by name, and take every opportunity to have individual conversations with children. Be careful about talking only or mainly to the whole group or numbers of children at a time. You don’t really get to know somebody unless you interact individually. As you get to know children, try to notice, comment on or talk about something that is unique to that child – a new haircut or piece of clothing, a comment about something you did or talked about yesterday, something you read or heard that you think he or she might be interested in. Pay attention to a child who is telling you something. This is a challenge, as it might be necessary to maintain supervision and awareness of what is going on around you while at the same time engaging with the child. Be a good listener and observer. Spend time just watching children interact with others and engage with the material. Listen in on conversations. Make notes so that you can remember and make constructive use of the information. Accept individual differences in children. This doesn’t mean tolerating disruptive or destructive behaviour, but it does mean working with the fact that each child is different. Be aware of your own notions or biases of the ‘ideal’ child. Each of us probably has preferences – some like outgoing cheeky children, while others gravitate towards dreamy, quiet or reflective children. Think about how these ideals might affect your interactions with children. Similarly, think about what kinds of behaviour or characteristics really bother you in children. Acknowledge these biases to yourself and maybe even to your colleagues, and then work against them as you interact with children. When a child has an additional need such as a disability, or when there is a language or cultural barrier or a behavioural problem, try to figure out ways to deal constructively with it – for example to communicate with a child who has limited English, or to truly include a child in a wheelchair. At all times, there are choices of things to do among a range of different kinds of activities. There is flexibility about who is doing what, when and for how long. There are relatively few if any times when everyone is expected to do the same thing. The majority of materials are open- ended – that is, they lend themselves to a variety of uses so that children can adapt them to their own interests and agendas. (2) Describe how the principles of anti- discriminatory practice can be applied to practice. In the setting anti-discriminatory practice is very important in a childcare setting to ensure that everyone involved in the setting, such as children, parents/carers and staff members are not discriminated against in relation to their age, disability, ethnicity, gender, health, religious beliefs and sexuality. In my setting we apply anti-discriminatory practice with children by ensuring we show no favouritism in children and all the children get treated the same, also we ensure we do not refuse any children because of their beliefs, religion etc. Our setting is committed to anti-discriminatory practice to promote equality of opportunity and valuing diversity for all children and families. We aim to: provide a secure and accessible environment in which all children can flourish and in which all contributions are considered and valued; include and value the contribution of all families to our understanding of equality and diversity; provide positive non-stereotyping information about gender roles and diverse family structures, diverse ethnic and cultural groups and disabled people; improve our knowledge and understanding of issues of anti-discriminatory practice, promoting equality and valuing diversity; challenge and eliminate discriminatory actions; make inclusion a thread that runs through all of the activities of the setting; foster good relations between all communities. We do not discriminate against a child or their family, or prevent entry to our setting, on the basis of a protected characteristic as defined by the Equalities Act 2010. These are: disability; race; gender reassignment; religion or belief; sex; sexual orientation; age; pregnancy and maternity; and marriage and civil partnership. We do not discriminate against a child with a disability or refuse a child entry to our setting for reason relating to disability. We believe that no child, individual or family should be excluded from Pre-schools activities on grounds of age, gender, sexuality, class, family status, means, disability, colour, ethnic origin, culture, religion or belief. In the setting we will ensure that our service is fully inclusive in meeting the needs of all children. We recognise that children and their families come from diverse backgrounds. All families have needs and values that arise from their social and economic, ethnic and cultural or religious backgrounds. Children grow up in diverse family structures that include two parent and one parent families. Some children have two parents of the same sex. Some children have close links with extended families of grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins while others may be more removed from close kin or may live with other relatives or foster carers. Some children have needs that arise from disability or impairment or may have parents that are affected by disability or impairment. Some children come from families who experience social exclusion or severe hardship. Some have to face discrimination and prejudice because of their ethnicity, the languages they speak, their religious or belief background, their gender or their impairment. (3) Describe why it is important to plan activities that meet the individual needs of children. In the setting it is important for practitioners to identify children’s care and learning needs in a setting, there are many reasons for this. Firstly, is to promote development. Some children develop and learn faster than others and it is partly our responsibility to ensure all children’s needs are cared for no matter what stage of development they are at. We can do this by carrying out observations; these help us to identify the exact learning needs of children. They can show us clearly what stage of development each individual child is at, we would compare each child against milestones for that age and stage of development and then we can begin to plan to meet the learning needs of certain children who are not meeting milestones and also plan to accommodate for those children who are over excelling the milestones. Children will develop better if there are adequate numbers of staff/adults present, taking into account the correct staff ratios for each particular age of children. With more hands on around the setting children will benefit greatly so it is important to plan how many adults/staff should be present for a particular day/activity, by doing so there is a higher chance of meeting all of the children’s needs. For example, in my placement I am in a Primary 1 class where there is a teacher and a classroom assistant. For this age range of children the extra support is extremely important as the children’s care and learning needs are higher than that of a Primary 7 child i.e. toileting, a Primary 1 child would need more assistance than that of a Primary 7 child. So if a teacher is caring for the needs of a child who has had a toileting accident it is important to have a classroom assistant so that the other children are supervised and their needs also met. (4) Explain how the practitioner can promote childrens physical and emotional well- being within an early year setting. Physical well-Being Between birth 6 months a child will: Turn their head toward sounds and movement Watch an adults face when feeding Smile at familiar faces and voices Reach up to hold feet when lying on their backs Look and reach for objects Hold and shake a rattle Put everything in their mouths Between 6 12 months: Move from sitting with support to sitting alone Roll over from their tummy to their back Begin to creep, crawl or shuffle on their bottom Pull on or push against adult hands or furniture to reach a standing position Raises arms to be lifted Turn and look up when they hear their name Pat and poke objects when playing Pass objects from hand to hand Look for things that have been hidden or dropped Reaches hand towards source of food Between 12 -24 months: Begin to walk Sits alone indefinitely Feed themselves Push and pull toys while walking Wave goodbye Point or make noises to indicate wants Enjoy a picture Shake head for No Uses thumb and first two fingers to grip Bangs objects together Stoops to pick things up from the floor Begins to show preference for one hand Builds tower of few bricks Holds crayon in palm and makes marks on paper Between 24 36 months : Kneels to play Throws Kicks ball Builds larger brick tower Pour liquids Between 36 60+ months: Jumps with feet together Walks on tip toes Walks up and down stairs Catches a gently thrown ball Climbs with increasing confidence Paints Gains control over eating tools Pedals Throws with aim Uses scissors Holds a pencil and can draw people/houses Hops Kicks with aim Catches ball Handles pencil with control Copy shapes and write some letters Sews stitches Emotional well- being: Birth- 3 months: Responds to adults especially mothers face and voice Smiles, concentrates on adults face during feeding Very dependent on adults for reassurance and comfort, quietens when held and cuddled Fleeing smiles when asleep Between 6 12 months: Enjoys company of others and games like peek-a-boo Shows affection to known carer, but shy with strangers Between 12 24 months : Likes to please adults and to perform for an audience May become anxious or distressed if separated from known adults May use comfort objects Mostly cooperative and can be distracted from unwanted behaviour Between 24 36 months: Developing sense of own identity, wanting to do things for self Demanding of adult attention, jealous of attention given to others, reluctant to share playthings or adults attention Acts impulsively, requiring needs to be met instantly, prone to bursts of emotion tantrums Enjoys playing with adult or older child who will give attention, beginning to play with others of own age for short periods Between 36 48 months: Becoming more independent and self motivated Feels more secure and able to cope with unfamiliar surroundings and adults for periods of time Becoming more cooperative with adults and likes to help Between 48 60+ months: Makes friends but may need help in resolving disputes Developing understanding of rules, but still finds turn-taking difficult Enjoys helping others and taking responsibility Learns lots about the world and how it works, and about people and relationships Makes friends (often short-term) and plays group games Needs structure and a routine to feel safe When behaviour is ‘over the top’, they need limits to be set Bibliography:- (1) Kate, Kath, Sue, Penny.(2010) 1st edition, London: Heinemann. (2) Kate et al (2010) 1st edition, London: Heinemann.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

History Of Baulhkam Hills :: essays research papers

About Baulkham Hills Baulkham Hills, located approximately 29km North West of Sydney, is one of the largest suburbs in area and population within the Hills with a population of 33,661 people (Census 2001). Baulkham Hills as a suburb not including Bella Vista makes up about 24% of the total population (139,404) of the Baulkham Hills Shire. 23,282 people were born in Australia and 25,855 speak English only. 30,179 live in separated houses as opposed to other forms such as flats, units or townhouses. (Census 2001) Baulkham Hills Town Centre includes Stockland Mall, The Bull 'n' Bush Hotel and a number of street shops. Baulkham Hills is the home of Norwest Business Park which is rapidly becoming the main business centre within the Hills. Norwest Business Park includes retail, commercial, industrial and hotel developments. For example Norwest Marketown, Norwest International Hotel and the Hills Christian Life Centre. Baulkham Hills is also the home to Baulkham Hills TAFE College and a number of private and public schools. History of BAULKHAM HILLS There are several versions of how this area between Castle Hill and Parramatta was named. The most likely reason is its resemblance to the county of Roxburgh, between Scotland and England, which shares a similar name, Buckholm Hills, the home of one of the area's early settlers. Andrew McDougall, who arrived in Sydney in 1798 from Roxburgh, was one of several settlers to receive grants in the area in 1799. He called his 150 acre grant Roxburgh Hall. The estate remained in the family until 1876 and Roxburgh Hall was built in 1860. Andrew McDougall was one of the trustees appointed when 3,000 acres were set aside as Baulkham Hills Common in 1804. The name has been officially recognised since 1802. One of the earliest land grants in the area was the 30 acres given to George Best in 1796. He slowly gained more land until he had 185 acres. The oldest farm-house in the area is Joyce Farmhouse in Valerie Crescent, near Seven Hills. It was built in 1804 by William Joyce, destroyed by fire and rebuilt in 1806, and used as an inn between 1811 and 1826. Joyce had received his 30 acre grant in about 1794. One of the oldest pioneer families in Parramatta came into this area when George Suttor received a grant of 186 acres in 1802 and advanced on the property, which he called Chelsea Farm, after his birthplace in London. History Of Baulhkam Hills :: essays research papers About Baulkham Hills Baulkham Hills, located approximately 29km North West of Sydney, is one of the largest suburbs in area and population within the Hills with a population of 33,661 people (Census 2001). Baulkham Hills as a suburb not including Bella Vista makes up about 24% of the total population (139,404) of the Baulkham Hills Shire. 23,282 people were born in Australia and 25,855 speak English only. 30,179 live in separated houses as opposed to other forms such as flats, units or townhouses. (Census 2001) Baulkham Hills Town Centre includes Stockland Mall, The Bull 'n' Bush Hotel and a number of street shops. Baulkham Hills is the home of Norwest Business Park which is rapidly becoming the main business centre within the Hills. Norwest Business Park includes retail, commercial, industrial and hotel developments. For example Norwest Marketown, Norwest International Hotel and the Hills Christian Life Centre. Baulkham Hills is also the home to Baulkham Hills TAFE College and a number of private and public schools. History of BAULKHAM HILLS There are several versions of how this area between Castle Hill and Parramatta was named. The most likely reason is its resemblance to the county of Roxburgh, between Scotland and England, which shares a similar name, Buckholm Hills, the home of one of the area's early settlers. Andrew McDougall, who arrived in Sydney in 1798 from Roxburgh, was one of several settlers to receive grants in the area in 1799. He called his 150 acre grant Roxburgh Hall. The estate remained in the family until 1876 and Roxburgh Hall was built in 1860. Andrew McDougall was one of the trustees appointed when 3,000 acres were set aside as Baulkham Hills Common in 1804. The name has been officially recognised since 1802. One of the earliest land grants in the area was the 30 acres given to George Best in 1796. He slowly gained more land until he had 185 acres. The oldest farm-house in the area is Joyce Farmhouse in Valerie Crescent, near Seven Hills. It was built in 1804 by William Joyce, destroyed by fire and rebuilt in 1806, and used as an inn between 1811 and 1826. Joyce had received his 30 acre grant in about 1794. One of the oldest pioneer families in Parramatta came into this area when George Suttor received a grant of 186 acres in 1802 and advanced on the property, which he called Chelsea Farm, after his birthplace in London.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Chapter 17 The Four Champions

Harry sat there, aware that every head in the Great Hall had turned to look at him. He was stunned. He felt numb. He was surely dreaming. He had not heard correctly. There was no applause. A buzzing, as though of angry bees, was starting to fill the Hall; some students were standing up to get a better look at Harry as he sat, frozen, in his seat. Up at the top table, Professor McGonagall had got to her feet and swept past Ludo Bagman and Professor Karkaroff to whisper urgently to Professor Dumbledore, who bent his ear toward her, frowning slightly. Harry turned to Ron and Hermione; beyond them, he saw the long Gryffindor table all watching him, openmouthed. â€Å"I didn't put my name in,† Harry said blankly. â€Å"You know I didn't.† Both of them stared just as blankly back. At the top table, Professor Dumbledore had straightened up, nodding to Professor McGonagall. â€Å"Harry Potter!† he called again. â€Å"Harry! Up here, if you please!† â€Å"Go on,† Hermione whispered, giving Harry a slight push. Harry got to his feet, trod on the hem of his robes, and stumbled slightly. He set off up the gap between the Gryffindor and Hufflepuff tables. It felt like an immensely long walk; the top table didn't seem to be getting any nearer at all, and he could feel hundreds and hundreds of eyes upon him, as though each were a searchlight. The buzzing grew louder and louder. After what seemed like an hour, he was right in front of Dumbledore, feeling the stares of all the teachers upon him. â€Å"Well†¦through the door, Harry,† said Dumbledore. He wasn't smiling. Harry moved off along the teachers' table. Hagrid was seated right at the end. He did not wink at Harry, or wave, or give any of his usual signs of greeting. He looked completely astonished and stared at Harry as he passed like everyone else. Harry went through the door out of the Great Hall and found himself in a smaller room, lined with paintings of witches and wizards. A handsome fire was roaring in the fireplace opposite him. The faces in the portraits turned to look at him as he entered. He saw a wizened witch flit out of the frame of her picture and into the one next to it, which contained a wizard with a walrus mustache. The wizened witch started whispering in his ear. Viktor Krum, Cedric Diggory, and Fleur Delacour were grouped around the fire. They looked strangely impressive, silhouetted against the flames. Krum, hunched-up and brooding, was leaning against the mantelpiece, slightly apart from the other two. Cedric was standing with his hands behind his back, staring into the fire. Fleur Delacour looked around when Harry walked in and threw back her sheet of long, silvery hair. â€Å"What is it?† she said. â€Å"Do zey want us back in ze Hall?† She thought he had come to deliver a message. Harry didn't know how to explain what had just happened. He just stood there, looking at the three champions. It struck him how very tall all of them were. There was a sound of scurrying feet behind him, and Ludo Bagman entered the room. He took Harry by the arm and led him forward. â€Å"Extraordinary!† he muttered, squeezing Harry's arm. â€Å"Absolutely extraordinary! Gentlemen†¦lady,† he added, approaching the fireside and addressing the other three. â€Å"May I introduce – incredible though it may seem – the fourth Triwizard champion?† Viktor Krum straightened up. His surly face darkened as he surveyed Harry. Cedric looked nonplussed. He looked from Bagman to Harry and back again as though sure he must have misheard what Bagman had said. Fleur Delacour, however, tossed her hair, smiling, and said, â€Å"Oh, vairy funny joke, Meester Bagman.† â€Å"Joke?† Bagman repeated, bewildered. â€Å"No, no, not at all! Harry's name just came out of the Goblet of Fire!† Krum's thick eyebrows contracted slightly. Cedric was still looking politely bewildered. Fleur frowned. â€Å"But evidently zair ‘as been a mistake,† she said contemptuously to Bagman. â€Å"‘E cannot compete. ‘E is too young.† â€Å"Well†¦it is amazing,† said Bagman, rubbing his smooth chin and smiling down at Harry. â€Å"But, as you know, the age restriction was only imposed this year as an extra safety measure. And as his name's come out of the goblet†¦I mean, I don't think there can be any ducking out at this stage†¦.It's down in the rules, you're obliged†¦Harry will just have to do the best he -â€Å" The door behind them opened again, and a large group of people came in: Professor Dumbledore, followed closely by Mr. Crouch, Professor Karkaroff, Madame Maxime, Professor McGonagall, and Professor Snape. Harry heard the buzzing of the hundreds of students on the other side of the wall, before Professor McGonagall closed the door. â€Å"Madame Maxime!† said Fleur at once, striding over to her headmistress. â€Å"Zey are saying zat zis little boy is to compete also!† Somewhere under Harry's numb disbelief he felt a ripple of anger. Little boy? Madame Maxime had drawn herself up to her full, and considerable, height. The top of her handsome head brushed the candle-filled chandelier, and her gigantic black-satin bosom swelled. â€Å"What is ze meaning of zis, Dumbly-dorr?† she said imperiously. â€Å"I'd rather like to know that myself, Dumbledore,† said Professor Karkaroff. He was wearing a steely smile, and his blue eyes were like chips of ice. â€Å"Two Hogwarts champions? I don't remember anyone telling me the host school is allowed two champions – or have I not read the rules carefully enough?† He gave a short and nasty laugh. â€Å"C'est impossible,† said Madame Maxime, whose enormous hand with its many superb opals was resting upon Fleur's shoulder. â€Å"‘Ogwarts cannot ‘ave two champions. It is most injust.† â€Å"We were under the impression that your Age Line would keep out younger contestants, Dumbledore,† said Karkaroff, his steely smile still in place, though his eyes were colder than ever. â€Å"Otherwise, we would, of course, have brought along a wider selection of candidates from our own schools.† â€Å"It's no one's fault but Potter's, Karkaroff,† said Snape softly. His black eyes were alight with malice. â€Å"Don't go blaming Dumbledore for Potter's determination to break rules. He has been crossing lines ever since he arrived here -â€Å" â€Å"Thank you, Severus,† said Dumbledore firmly, and Snape went quiet, though his eyes still glinted malevolently through his curtain of greasy black hair. Professor Dumbledore was now looking down at Harry, who looked right back at him, trying to discern the expression of the eyes behind the half-moon spectacles. â€Å"Did you put your name into the Goblet of Fire, Harry?† he asked calmly. â€Å"No,† said Harry. He was very aware of everybody watching him closely. Snape made a soft noise of impatient disbelief in the shadows. â€Å"Did you ask an older student to put it into the Goblet of Fire for you?† said Professor Dumbledore, ignoring Snape. â€Å"No,† said Harry vehemently. â€Å"Ah, but of course ‘e is lying!† cried Madame Maxime. Snape was now shaking his head, his lip curling. â€Å"He could not have crossed the Age Line,† said Professor McGonagall sharply. â€Å"I am sure we are all agreed on that -â€Å" â€Å"Dumbly-dorr must ‘ave made a mistake wiz ze line,† said Madame Maxime, shrugging. â€Å"It is possible, of course,† said Dumbledore politely. â€Å"Dumbledore, you know perfectly well you did not make a mistake!† said Professor McGonagall angrily. â€Å"Really, what nonsense! Harry could not have crossed the line himself, and as Professor Dumbledore believes that he did not persuade an older student to do it for him, I'm sure that should be good enough for everybody else!† She shot a very angry look at Professor Snape. â€Å"Mr. Crouch†¦Mr. Bagman,† said Karkaroff, his voice unctuous once more, â€Å"you are our – er – objective judges. Surely you will agree that this is most irregular?† Bagman wiped his round, boyish face with his handkerchief and looked at Mr. Crouch, who was standing outside the circle of the firelight, his face half hidden in shadow. He looked slightly eerie, the half darkness making him look much older, giving him an almost skull-like appearance. When he spoke, however, it was in his usual curt voice. â€Å"We must follow the rules, and the rules state clearly that those people whose names come out of the Goblet of Fire are bound to compete in the tournament.† â€Å"Well, Barty knows the rule book back to front,† said Bagman, beaming and turning back to Karkaroff and Madame Maxime, as though the matter was now closed. â€Å"I insist upon resubmitting the names of the rest of my students,† said Karkaroff. He had dropped his unctuous tone and his smile now. His face wore a very ugly look indeed. â€Å"You will set up the Goblet of Fire once more, and we will continue adding names until each school has two champions. It's only fair, Dumbledore.† â€Å"But Karkaroff, it doesn't work like that,† said Bagman. â€Å"The Goblet of Fire's just gone out – it won't reignite until the start of the next tournament -â€Å" â€Å"- in which Durmstrang will most certainly not be competing!† exploded Karkaroff. â€Å"After all our meetings and negotiations and compromises, I little expected something of this nature to occur! I have half a mind to leave now!† â€Å"Empty threat, Karkaroff,† growled a voice from near the door. â€Å"You can't leave your champion now. He's got to compete. They've all got to compete. Binding magical contract, like Dumbledore said. Convenient, eh?† Moody had just entered the room. He limped toward the fire, and with every right step he took, there was a loud clunk. â€Å"Convenient?† said Karkaroff. â€Å"I'm afraid I don't understand you, Moody.† Harry could tell he was trying to sound disdainful, as though what Moody was saying was barely worth his notice, but his hands gave him away; they had balled themselves into fists. â€Å"Don't you?† said Moody quietly. â€Å"It's very simple, Karkaroff. Someone put Potter's name in that goblet knowing he'd have to compete if it came out.† â€Å"Evidently, someone ‘oo wished to give ‘Ogwarts two bites at ze apple!† said Madame Maxime. â€Å"I quite agree, Madame Maxime,† said Karkaroff, bowing to her. â€Å"I shall be lodging complaints with the Ministry of Magic and the International Confederation of Wizards -â€Å" â€Å"If anyone's got reason to complain, it's Potter,† growled Moody, â€Å"but†¦funny thing†¦I don't hear him saying a word†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Why should ‘e complain?† burst out Fleur Delacour, stamping her foot. â€Å"‘E ‘as ze chance to compete, ‘asn't ‘e? We ‘ave all been ‘oping to be chosen for weeks and weeks! Ze honor for our schools! A thousand Galleons in prize money – zis is a chance many would die for!† â€Å"Maybe someone's hoping Potter is going to die for it,† said Moody, with the merest trace of a growl. An extremely tense silence followed these words. Ludo Bagman, who was looking very anxious indeed, bounced nervously up and down on his feet and said, â€Å"Moody, old man†¦what a thing to say!† â€Å"We all know Professor Moody considers the morning wasted if he hasn't discovered six plots to murder him before lunchtime,† said Karkaroff loudly. â€Å"Apparently he is now teaching his students to fear assassination too. An odd quality in a Defense Against the Dark Arts teacher, Dumbledore, but no doubt you had your reasons. â€Å"Imagining things, am I?† growled Moody. â€Å"Seeing things, eh? It was a skilled witch or wizard who put the boy's name in that goblet†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Ah, what evidence is zere of zat?† said Madame Maxime, throwing up her huge hands. â€Å"Because they hoodwinked a very powerful magical object!† said Moody. â€Å"It would have needed an exceptionally strong Confundus Charm to bamboozle that goblet into forgetting that only three schools compete in the tournament†¦.I'm guessing they submitted Potter's name under a fourth school, to make sure he was the only one in his category†¦.† â€Å"You seem to have given this a great deal of thought, Moody,† said Karkaroff coldly, â€Å"and a very ingenious theory it is – though of course, I heard you recently got it into your head that one of your birthday presents contained a cunningly disguised basilisk egg, and smashed it to pieces before realizing it was a carriage clock. So you'll understand if we don't take you entirely seriously†¦.† â€Å"There are those who'll turn innocent occasions to their advantage,† Moody retorted in a menacing voice. â€Å"It's my job to think the way Dark wizards do, Karkaroff – as you ought to remember†¦ â€Å"Alastor!† said Dumbledore warningly. Harry wondered for a moment whom he was speaking to, but then realized â€Å"Mad-Eye† could hardly be Moody's real first name. Moody fell silent, though still surveying Karkaroff with satisfaction – Karkaroff's face was burning. â€Å"How this situation arose, we do not know,† said Dumbledore, speaking to everyone gathered in the room. â€Å"It seems to me, however, that we have no choice but to accept it. Both Cedric and Harry have been chosen to compete in the Tournament. This, therefore, they will do†¦.† â€Å"Ah, but Dumbly-dorr -â€Å" â€Å"My dear Madame Maxime, if you have an alternative, I would be delighted to hear it.† Dumbledore waited, but Madame Maxime did not speak, she merely glared. She wasn't the only one either. Snape looked furious; Karkaroff livid; Bagman, however, looked rather excited. â€Å"Well, shall we crack on, then?† he said, rubbing his hands together and smiling around the room. â€Å"Got to give our champions their instructions, haven't we? Barty, want to do the honors?† Mr. Crouch seemed to come out of a deep reverie. â€Å"Yes,† he said, â€Å"instructions. Yes†¦the first task†¦Ã¢â‚¬  He moved forward into the firelight. Close up, Harry thought he looked ill. There were dark shadows beneath his eyes and a thin, papery look about his wrinkled skin that had not been there at the Quidditch World Cup. â€Å"The first task is designed to test your daring,† he told Harry, Cedric, Fleur, and Viktor, â€Å"so we are not going to be telling you what it is. Courage in the face of the unknown is an important quality in a wizard†¦very important†¦. â€Å"The first task will take place on November the twenty-fourth, in front of the other students and the panel of judges. â€Å"The champions are not permitted to ask for or accept help of any kind from their teachers to complete the tasks in the tournament. The champions will face the first challenge armed only with their wands. They will receive information about the second task when the first is over. Owing to the demanding and time-consuming nature of the tournament, the champions are exempted from end-of-year tests.† Mr. Crouch turned to look at Dumbledore. â€Å"I think that's all, is it, Albus?† â€Å"I think so,† said Dumbledore, who was looking at Mr. Crouch with mild concern. â€Å"Are you sure you wouldn't like to stay at Hogwarts tonight, Barty?† â€Å"No, Dumbledore, I must get back to the Ministry,† said Mr. Crouch. â€Å"It is a very busy, very difficult time at the moment†¦.I've left young Weatherby in charge†¦.Very enthusiastic†¦a little overenthusiastic, if truth be told†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"You'll come and have a drink before you go, at least?† said Dumbledore. â€Å"Come on, Barry, I'm staying!† said Bagman brightly. â€Å"It's all happening at Hogwarts now, you know, much more exciting here than at the office!† â€Å"I think not, Ludo,† said Crouch with a touch of his old impatience. â€Å"Professor Karkaroff – Madame Maxime – a nightcap?† said Dumbledore. But Madame Maxime had already put her arm around Fleur's shoulders and was leading her swiftly out of the room. Harry could hear them both talking very fast in French as they went off into the Great Hall. Karkaroff beckoned to Krum, and they, too, exited, though in silence. â€Å"Harry, Cedric, I suggest you go up to bed,† said Dumbledore, smiling at both of them. â€Å"I am sure Gryffindor and Hufflepuff are waiting to celebrate with you, and it would be a shame to deprive them of this excellent excuse to make a great deal of mess and noise.† Harry glanced at Cedric, who nodded, and they left together. The Great Hall was deserted now; the candles had burned low, giving the jagged smiles of the pumpkins an eerie, flickering quality. â€Å"So,† said Cedric, with a slight smile. â€Å"We're playing against each other again!† â€Å"I s'pose,† said Harry. He really couldn't think of anything to say. The inside of his head seemed to be in complete disarray, as though his brain had been ransacked. â€Å"So†¦tell me†¦Ã¢â‚¬  said Cedric as they reached the entrance hall, which was now lit only by torches in the absence of the Goblet of Fire. â€Å"How did you get your name in?† â€Å"I didn't,† said Harry, staring up at him. â€Å"I didn't put it in. I was telling the truth.† â€Å"Ah†¦okay,† said Cedric. Harry could tell Cedric didn't believe him. â€Å"Well†¦see you, then.† Instead of going up the marble staircase, Cedric headed for a door to its right. Harry stood listening to him going down the stone steps beyond it, then, slowly, he started to climb the marble ones. Was anyone except Ron and Hermione going to believe him, or would they all think he'd put himself in for the tournament? Yet how could anyone think that, when he was facing competitors who'd had three years' more magical education than he had – when he was now facing tasks that not only sounded very dangerous, but which were to be performed in front of hundreds of people? Yes, he'd thought about it†¦he'd fantasized about it†¦but it had been a joke, really, an idle sort of dream†¦he'd never really, seriously considered entering†¦. But someone else had considered it†¦someone else had wanted him in the tournament, and had made sure he was entered. Why? To give him a treat? He didn't think so, somehow†¦ To see him make a fool of himself? Well, they were likely to get their wish†¦. But to get him killed? Was Moody just being his usual paranoid self? Couldn't someone have put Harry's name in the goblet as a trick, a practical joke? Did anyone really want him dead? Harry was able to answer that at once. Yes, someone wanted him dead, someone had wanted him dead ever since he had been a year old†¦Lord Voldemort. But how could Voldemort have ensured that Harry's name got into the Goblet of Fire? Voldemort was supposed to be far away, in some distant country, in hiding, alone†¦feeble and powerless†¦. Yet in that dream he had had, just before he had awoken with his scar hurting, Voldemort had not been alone†¦he had been talking to Wormtail†¦plotting Harry's murder†¦. Harry got a shock to find himself facing the Fat Lady already. He had barely noticed where his feet were carrying him. It was also a surprise to see that she was not alone in her frame. The wizened witch who had flitted into her neighbor's painting when he had joined the champions downstairs was now sitting smugly beside the Fat Lady. She must have dashed through every picture lining seven staircases to reach here before him. Both she and the Fat Lady were looking down at him with the keenest interest. â€Å"Well, well, well,† said the Fat Lady, â€Å"Violet's just told me everything. Who's just been chosen as school champion, then?† â€Å"Balderdash,† said Harry dully. â€Å"It most certainly isn't!† said the pale witch indignantly. â€Å"No, no, Vi, it's the password,† said the Fat Lady soothingly, and she swung forward on her hinges to let Harry into the common room. The blast of noise that met Harry's ears when the portrait opened almost knocked him backward. Next thing he knew, he was being wrenched inside the common room by about a dozen pairs of hands, and was facing the whole of Gryffindor House, all of whom were screaming, applauding, and whistling. â€Å"You should've told us you'd entered!† bellowed Fred; he looked half annoyed, half deeply impressed. â€Å"How did you do it without getting a beard? Brilliant!† roared George. â€Å"I didn't,† Harry said. â€Å"I don't know how -â€Å" But Angelina had now swooped down upon him; â€Å"Oh if it couldn't be me, at least it's a Gryffindor -â€Å" â€Å"You'll be able to pay back Diggory for that last Quidditch match, Harry!† shrieked Katie Bell, another of the Gryffindor Chasers. â€Å"We've got food, Harry, come and have some -â€Å" â€Å"I'm not hungry, I had enough at the feast -â€Å" But nobody wanted to hear that he wasn't hungry; nobody wanted to hear that he hadn't put his name in the goblet; not one single person seemed to have noticed that he wasn't at all in the mood to celebrate†¦.Lee Jordan had unearthed a Gryffindor banner from somewhere, and he insisted on draping it around Harry like a cloak. Harry couldn't get away; whenever he tried to sidle over to the staircase up to the dormitories, the crowd around him closed ranks, forcing another butterbeer on him, stuffing crisps and peanuts into his hands†¦.Everyone wanted to know how he had done it, how he had tricked Dumbledore's Age Line and managed to get his name into the goblet†¦. â€Å"I didn't,† he said, over and over again, â€Å"I don't know how it happened.† But for all the notice anyone took, he might just as well not have answered at all. â€Å"I'm tired!† he bellowed finally, after nearly half an hour. â€Å"No, seriously, George – I'm going to bed -â€Å" He wanted more than anything to find Ron and Hermione, to find a bit of sanity, but neither of them seemed to be in the common room. Insisting that he needed to sleep, and almost flattening the little Creevey brothers as they attempted to waylay him at the foot of the stairs, Harry managed to shake everyone off and climb up to the dormitory as fast as he could. To his great relief, he found Ron was lying on his bed in the otherwise empty dormitory, still fully dressed. He looked up when Harry slammed the door behind him. â€Å"Where've you been?† Harry said. â€Å"Oh hello,† said Ron. He was grinning, but it was a very odd, strained sort of grin. Harry suddenly became aware that he was still wearing the scarlet Gryffindor banner that Lee had tied around him. He hastened to take it off, but it was knotted very tightly. Ron lay on the bed without moving, watching Harry struggle to remove it. â€Å"So,† he said, when Harry had finally removed the banner and thrown it into a corner. â€Å"Congratulations.† â€Å"What d'you mean, congratulations?† said Harry, staring at Ron. There was definitely something wrong with the way Ron was smiling: It was more like a grimace. â€Å"Well†¦no one else got across the Age Line,† said Ron. â€Å"Not even Fred and George. What did you use – the Invisibility Cloak?† â€Å"The Invisibility Cloak wouldn't have got me over that line,† said Harry slowly. â€Å"Oh right,† said Ron. â€Å"I thought you might've told me if it was the cloak†¦because it would've covered both of us, wouldn't it? But you found another way, did you?† â€Å"Listen,† said Harry, â€Å"I didn't put my name in that goblet. Someone else must've done it.† Ron raised his eyebrows. â€Å"What would they do that for?† â€Å"I dunno,† said Harry. He felt it would sound very melodramatic to say, â€Å"To kill me.† Ron's eyebrows rose so high that they were in danger of disappearing into his hair. â€Å"It's okay, you know, you can tell me the truth,† he said. â€Å"If you don't want everyone else to know, fine, but I don't know why you're bothering to lie, you didn't get into trouble for it, did you? That friend of the Fat Lady's, that Violet, she's already told us all Dumbledore's letting you enter. A thousand Galleons prize money, eh? And you don't have to do end-of-year tests either†¦.† â€Å"I didn't put my name in that goblet!† said Harry, starting to feel angry. â€Å"Yeah, okay,† said Ron, in exactly the same sceptical tone as Cedric. â€Å"Only you said this morning you'd have done it last night, and no one would've seen you†¦.I'm not stupid, you know.† â€Å"You're doing a really good impression of it,† Harry snapped. â€Å"Yeah?† said Ron, and there was no trace of a grin, forced or otherwise, on his face now. â€Å"You want to get to bed, Harry. I expect you'll need to be up early tomorrow for a photo-call or something.† He wrenched the hangings shut around his four-poster, leaving Harry standing there by the door, staring at the dark red velvet curtains, now hiding one of the few people he had been sure would believe him.