Saturday, December 28, 2019

Advocating Abolition Timeline Transatlantic Slave Trade

A Timeline of the Transatlantic Slave Trade and its Abolition 16th Century 1562 1564-65 1567 1607 1618 1619 1623 1625 1626 1649 1655 1655 1656 1657 1660s 1672 1675 1668 1683 1685-86 1690 1692 1698 1699 1702-13 1727 Sir John Hawkins, backed by Gonson and other London merchants, leaves Plymouth with three ships, making him the first English slave trader. He takes 300 Africans and trades them with the Spanish and Portuguese for sugar, hides, spices and pearls Backed by Queen Elizabeth I, Hawkins makes his second slavery voyage trading 500 Africans for precious metals, pearls and jewels Hawkins makes his third and final slavery voyage, again with the Queen’s investment, involving six ships, including one captained by his cousin Sir Francis†¦show more content†¦Chief Justice Lord Mansfield rules that enslaved people in England cannot be forced to return to the West Indies. This ruling does not entitle slaves in England their freedom John Stedman joins a military expedition to suppress a slave rebellion in Surinam, South America and is appalled by the inhumanity shown to Africans. In 1796 he publishes ‘The Narrative of a Five Years Expedition against the Revolted Negroes of Surinam’, a full account of his experiences that becomes a classic of abolitionist literature John Wesley, an early leader of the Methodist movement, publishes anti-slavery tract Thoughts Upon Slavery 1775 1775-83 1778 1781 1783 1786 1787 1788 1788 Royal Commission is set up to take evidence on the slave trade American War of Independence. France seizes Grenada, Tobago and St Kitts from Britain but retains only Tobago after the Peace of Versailles The Knight vs Wedderburn legal case in Edinburgh rules that enslavement is incompatible with Scots law The Zong case causes outrage and strengthens the abolition campaign: 470 Africans are forced onto the slave ship Zong. The cramped conditions are so appalling that seven crew members and sixty Africans died from sickness; the remaining 133 sick

Friday, December 20, 2019

Mr. Shimerdas Suicide in Willa Cathers My Antonia Essay

Mr. Shimerdas Suicide in Willa Cathers My Antonia My Antonia, by Willa Cather, is a novel about Jim Burden and his relationship and experiences growing up with Antonia Shimerda in Nebraska. Throughout the book Jim reflects on his memories of Nebraska and the Shimerda family, often times in a sad and depressing tone. One of the main ways Cather is able to provoke these sad emotions within the reader is through the suicide of Antonia’s father, Mr. Shimerda. His death was unexpected by everyone and it is thought that homesickness is what drove him to take his own life. Homesickness was surely felt by Mr. Shimerda, as it was by many, but it was the failure to adequately find a way to provide for his family that sent Mr. Shimerda into a†¦show more content†¦Certainly before he left Bohemia he believed that they had more than enough money to get by. The reality of his family’s circumstances was just beginning to show their impact. Antonia points out to Jim that Mr. Shimerda looks ill â€Å"My papa sick all the time † Tony panted as we flew. He not look good, Jim† (36). It is obvious that Mr. Shimerda was terribly stressed and was staring to show it physically. Most likely he looked ill due to not sleeping and eating. Nevertheless, Mr. Shimerda wanted desperately do the best that he could for his family. He moved his family with the hopes of finding good husbands for his daughters and wealth and land for his son. He calls onto Jim to teach Antonia to read. He does so in a very pleading, helpless way which leaves an unforgettable memory in Jim’s mind. Jim takes on the task, but unfortunately Mr. Shimerda gets little help from anyone else in the town for anything. Mr. Shimerda never really understands why he receives virtually little help from neighbors getting the farm going. He knows nothing about running the farm, and didn’t even have the appropriate tools necessary. He and his family on the other hand are very trusting and would give the shirts off their backs to any one who needed anything from them. â€Å"There never were such a people as the Shimerdas for wanting to give away everything they had† (38). He loses more hope for help when Krajiek tells him that even going into townShow MoreRelatedEssay about The Beauty of the Lack of Structure in My Antonia1587 Words   |  7 PagesAccording to James E. Miller Jr.s, My Antonia; A Frontier Drama of Time, Willa Cathers novel, one of her most important and perhaps most popular works, is defective in structure (Bloom, 21).   He quotes E. K. Brown, who defends that: Everything in the book is there to convey a feeling, not to tell a story, not to establish a social philosophy, not even to animate a group of characters (21).   The reader undoubtedly feels the impact of the story of Antonia and Jim as Cather intended, but criticsRead MoreChoices Affect More than Just the Choice Maker in Willa Cather’s My Antonia647 Words   |  3 Pagesconnected to them. In Willa Cather’s My Antonia, a choice to end their life by their own hands causes the one person who is closest to the deceased to make decisions based on their choice. â€Å"Things would have been very different with poor Antonia if her father had lived† (Cather 76). In chapter fourteen of â€Å"The Shimerdas,† Antonia’s father, Mr. Shimerda, commits suicide. While Mr. Shimerda untimely death causes anguish to his family and friends, his death adversely affects Antonia the most. Things canRead More My Antonia Essay: Theme of Separation1004 Words   |  5 PagesTheme of Separation in My Antonia nbsp; My Antonia, by Willa Cather, is a book tracing the story of a young man, Jim Burden, and his relationship with a young woman, Antonia Shimerda. Jim narrates the entire story in first person, relating accounts and memories of his childhood with Antonia. He traces his journey to the Nebraska where he and Antonia meet and grow up. Jim looks back on all of his childhood scenes with Antonia with nearly heartbreaking nostalgia. My Antonia, is a book that makesRead MoreEssay The Trials and Tribulations of Antonia1737 Words   |  7 Pagessome pay worth the risk? In Willa Cather’s My à ntonia, à ntonia faces struggles as a young child, including language barriers, poverty, harsh living conditions, and her beloved father’s death. However, as à ntonia grows into a woman, she must face struggles of a social nature, such as the division of social and economic classes, as well as social opprobrium. While immigration to America may open many doors for immigrants, it is equally fraught with obstacles. Likewise, à ntonia must face many adversitiesRead More Comparing the American Dream in My Antonia, Neighbor Rosicky, and 0 Pioneers!2900 Words   |  12 PagesThe American Dream in My Antonia, Neighbor Rosicky, and 0 Pioneers!      Ã‚  Ã‚   While many American immigrant narratives concentrate on the culture shock that awaits those who arrive from the more rural Old World to live in a city for the first time, Willa Cathers immigrants, often coming from urban European settings, face the vast and empty land of the plains. Guy Reynolds notes that the massive outburst of America westwards was in part powered by the explosion of immigrants through the easternRead MoreWilla Cather s My Antonia And O Pioneers !1919 Words   |  8 Pagespioneers were expecting the land to work with them, but it was actually working against them. Winters were hard, and many pioneers gave up and left. The few who remained were proven to be strong and determined to force the land to cooperate. In Willa Cather’s My à ntonia and O Pioneers!, her purpose was to show readers that women could be strong pioneers, overcoming the adversity caused by the land, as seen through similes, personification, juxtaposition, and arrangement. Alexandra’s brothers compare themselves

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Analytical Procedure Clients Business

Question: Discuss About The Analytical Procedure Clients Business Risks? Answer: Introduction GPSA Limited is a medical technology company that was incorporated in 1992 as the pioneer in medical technological research and distribution of medical equipment. In previous years from its inception, the company has relied on its internal control systems based on its results satisfaction of extensive control tests (Shim, 2011). After discussions with the clients, the company has made no changes in the internal controls systems while it also does not have an audit control or internal audit department. Therefore extensive audit is required especially in its internal controls to steer the company clear from wastages, theft and pilferages while out rightly going to profitability (Corsi, Castellano, Lamboglia Mancini, n.d.). This is the auditable areas of accounting; Accounts receivable These are the debtors that owe the company money. A bad debtors accounts means that the company will have problems with their cash flows. According to the ratios of 2017 unaudited report, the companys days in accounts receivables stands at 83.06 days. To put it in perspective, it will take roughly 84 days for a debtor to pay for the item that he or she took on debt (Corsi, Castellano, Lamboglia Mancini, n.d.). This is unacceptable, the higher the number of days, the less the operating cash flows of the company. In fact, in the audited reports of 2016, the days in accounts receivable stands at 60.65 days while the audited financial ratios for 2015 stands at 53.24 days. This shows an increase in the number of days the company is willing to let the debtors have its goods and services on credit. The company should avoid extending the debt window as it will only hurt the companys financial and cash flow position. Current investments In current investments the ratios used are times interest earned and current ratio. Investments bring interest to the company. The company has invested in properties and has bought multiple numbers of properties and leased them mostly to healthcare facilities. This will bring in rent which will be regarded as interest or revenue on investments (Chambers Rand, 2011). Property Assets The property assets account is a secondary account of the company as they have entered the property market just for diversification. Although initially the property market was relatively profitable, the market prices for property market have been tumbling (Chambers Rand, 2011). This is also partly due to global economic trends and a market that is so unstable in Australia. Intangible Assets They consist of companys goodwill, patented rights and intellectual properties to mention just a few. Goodwill is the companys brand name in value and how best GPSA limited has sold itself over the years. As a manufacturer of medical equipment the company is doing extensive research and development to innovate and patent its intellectual development (Gay Simnett, n.d.). Research and development capitalization There is extensive capital involved in research and development. GPSA limited can either fund its RD through its cash reserves or choose a strategic partner in its research and development. It has chosen the latter through a bank loan of $5 million to invest more in research and development (Gay Simnett, n.d.). The analysis of these accounts shows a struggling company unable to match its previous years performances. Perhaps, the economic environment and great competition from its rivals is eating greatly into its business a marketing it has dominated for the last 25 years. Its investment is also on a decline as shown by the interest earned ratio and the profitability of the company (Halpert, 2011). Although it is doing well in research and development, the company has again faced stiff competition with rivals coming up with ideas before it finishes its research therefore losing out on the property rights. According to their nature, analytical procedures provide different levels of security; to the extent that the level of security decreases may require the incorporation of another type of procedure or, where appropriate, non-application of that procedure. When evaluating the reliability of the information, the auditor should take the following into account for the information available: the source, comparability, nature and relevance and the controls established in the preparation (Halpert, 2011). Likewise, it is necessary to evaluate the possibility of applying together with substantive analytical procedures, details. For example, for the validation of the client balance, it is possible for the auditor to perform substantive analytical tests (evaluation of the seniority of balances) and to apply detailed tests (check of subsequent collections). Audit steps to reduce risk There are several steps that can reduce the audit risk. Firstly and of most importance is to talk to the client, GPSA Limited on the material misstatement that were raised in the audited accounts of 2015 and 2016 (Arens, Elder, Beasley Hogan, n.d.). The company should also give an explanation on what was done on the issues raised on the previous accounts. Another step is audit planning. Strategic planning on how to conduct the audit will reduce the audit risk. Analyze the ratios and additional information to outline business risks that GPSA faces ROE- return on equity falls from 2017 to 2017. In 2015,it was 22.17 against 7.19 in 2017 which mean GPSA performance in comparison to equity has gone down. Return on Total Assets- has also declined in 30 years due to tumbling prices of property markets and the reason is that it has no return on assets (Arens, Elder, Beasley Hogan, n.d.). Gross margin-this is varying on year end. In 2017, unaudited ratio it was at 31.76%, this means it has risen albeit marginally. Net profit margin- this are profits after all costs and operations. At 10.38%, it means that the costs in 2017 have increased maybe to alarming levels. Times interest earned- as the ratios show, it is decreasing. In 2015, it was at 4.10 in 2016 it was at 3.51 and in 2017, it was at 1.90. it means that the net interest from investment is falling. Days in inventory- at 166.53 days in 2017 unaudited reports, the equipment are staying too much in the warehouse (Arens, Elder, Beasley Hogan, n.d.). Current ratio- it is fluctuation and means that GPSA is doing not so well Debt equity ratio- this is the level of debt in comparison with equity of the company. Business risk faced by the company Business risk is the result of events, circumstances, actions or inactions that adversely affect the entity, which impairs its ability to achieve its objectives. Business risk also includes events that arise from changes in the company, complexity in specific areas or lack of timely changes. A business risk can have immediate consequences and generate a risk of material error pertaining to transactions, balance sheet accounts and disclosures of assertions and financial statements (Rupert Kern, 2016). They include collusion of customers and staff during delivery of tiles. Fraud from financial controller and the staff is also a part of business risk. Untimely recording of receipts is also a business risk in waiting. Return of equipment by customers is also a business risk (Rupert Kern, 2016). Internal controls- effective internal control Effective control- partially filled delivery invoices is marked as hold on invoice and the dispatch department of the financial supervisor is responsible for follow up after 30 days. The risk alleviated is that there is no unintentional delay of invoices or lost invoices which cannot be tracked. Test of control- follow up on the invoice and labeling of the invoice are the test of control (Rupert Kern, 2016). Effective control- the return of the medical equipment by the customers mainly due to inferior quality, oversupply or incorrect specification. Risk alleviation- ensuring that medical equipment are clearly labeled and the right quantity is supplied. Also, the company should make sure that it meets or quality controls in manufacture.Test control- follows up with the customers to learn on quality of equipment and retraining the staff. Effective control- trade receivables clerk is responsible for generating invoices and the computer automatically retrieves the price code tag from the sales master file. The risk alleviated is that there is no fraud in trade receivables since there are computer generated programs that cannot be used to defraud the company. Test control- creating internal control systems that are computer assisted to reduce human contact. Effective control- In the unaudited financial reports of 2017, the companys times interest earned ratio was at 1.90, while the audited financials for 2016 stood at 3.51 (Angappa Gunasekaran., 2010). This means that the interest on investment is decreasing as a result of slowdown in investment policy. This means that the interest rates are on a down ward trend. This partly due to falling of property market values across the country and the market value of global trends Effective control- The financial controller acts as a safeguard in which the companies financial assets are secured and completely. The audit risk in research and development are aimed at ensuring that the money is effectively put into correct usage. List and justify the weaknesses in internal control for sales and trade receivables For the development of basic auditing procedures for accounts receivable, sales and collections should be performed as substantive tests or compliance tests, the extent and scope of which depends on confidence in the company's internal control system. For the review and evaluation of the internal control are detailed in the same order and under the same headings of the applicable audit procedures and that must be carried out according to the circumstances, both for the compliance tests and for the substantive tests. The program of applicable audit procedures indicates the steps of compliance testing and substantive testing, the extent and scope of which depend, as already stated, on confidence in the internal control system, determined on the basis of the use of questionnaires for review and evaluation. The determination of importance begins when the auditor decides the preliminary criterion on the importance of the total financial statements. Acceptable audit risk is assessed for t he financial statements as a whole, and is not usually assigned to individual accounts or targets on an individual basis. The inherent risk is determined for each target for an account such as accounts receivable (Angappa Gunasekaran., 2010). The confirmation of accounts receivable is proof of details of the most important accounts receivable. We analyze briefly the confirmation by studying the appropriate tests for each of the objectives related to the balances, and then are reviewed separately in greater detail. The analysis of the details of balances details for the accounts receivable that follows. It assumes that the auditor has completed evidence planning work papers and has decided the planned detection risks for the details tests for each of the audit objectives related to the balances (Angappa Gunasekaran., 2010). The selected audit procedures and sample size strongly depends on whether the evidence planned for a given objective is abundant, medium or low. The discussion fo cuses on audit objectives related to accounts receivable balances. General Most of the audit evidence of accounts receivable and reserves for bad debts is based on the ratio of customers by age of balances. An aging check balance is a list of the balances in the accounts master file per cobra at the balance sheet date. It includes the outstanding balances of the individual customers and a breakdown of each balance by the time that has elapsed between the date of sale and the date of the balance. The test of the information of a relationship of customers by age of balances for the details links is a necessary procedure in the audit, usually this is done before any other test to assure to the auditor that the universe that is being verified agrees with the greater general and the master file of accounts receivable (Scandizzo, 2013). As a part of the test, the column of totals and the columns showing the seniority are added together, and the total of the customer ratio is compared with the highest one generat References Angappa Gunasekaran. (2010). Handbook on business information systems [electronic resource]. World Scientific. Arens, A., Elder, R., Beasley, M., Hogan, C. Auditing and assurance services. Chambers, A., Rand, G. (2011). The operations Auditing Handbook. New York, NY: John Wiley Sons. Corsi, K., Castellano, N., Lamboglia, R., Mancini, D. Reshaping Accounting and Management Control Systems. Gay, G., Simnett, R. Auditing and assurance services in Australia. Halpert, B. (2011).Auditing cloud computing. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Ridley, J. (2008). Cutting edge internal auditing. Chichester, England: Wiley. Rupert, T., Kern, B. (2016). Advances in accounting education. Bingley, U.K.: Emerald. Scandizzo, S. (2013). Risk and governance. London: Risk Books. Shim, J. (2011). Internal control and fraud detection. Cranbrook: Global Professional.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Success in Engineering

Question: Discuss abouts the Success in Engineering Profession. Answer: Engineering is an occupation, which consists of resolving complications with the utilization of expert esoteric and experiential skills. The study of engineering encompasses the concepts of arithmetic, technology, fact-finding, draft blueprint, conservation and fabrication. Every sector and every nation requires the assistance of engineers in order to function effortlessly and to provide a comfortable living standard to all its citizens. Engineers are the architects of a modern society. In many instances, it can be heard that the profession of engineering falls under the domain of males. Males are abounding in this profession with the exception of very few females [1]. This essay outlines the fact to construct an argumentative essay with respect to the existing differences between each gender at succeeding at an engineering career. The essay includes a general conception of unfairness faced by female engineers and subsequently the areas where clear distinctions exist in the path of s uccess for both the genders. Engineering is a field where clear professional distinctions between men and women exist all over the world. In the engineering schools and universities, men and women graduate in equal numbers. Additionally, women sometimes outperform men in securing good grades. However, when they graduate from their engineering colleges, the success path differs massively. For men, the journey of success is very clear-cut. Primarily, men must get into good colleges, obtain excellent grades, and secure satisfying jobs and then ultimately find success by being productive and efficient performers. Contrastingly, women are not so lucky in this arena. They have to combat many additional issues, which may or may not be related to their profession. Even in this 21st century society, particularly the subtle societal effect of patriarchy places undue restrictions on women [2]. This further proves to be a hindrance for women in achieving professional success as admittedly at present engineering is still a m ale-dominated sphere. To find success in an engineering career, males must give complete focus on their careers irrespective of the branch of engineering, workplace style and place of origin. The notion of equality and the manner of work-life stability practiced by the organization are comparatively of less importance to males in engineering. In this modern world, men are still considered to be the primary breadwinner of families and they are expected to contribute less effort to domesticity. Though this phenomenon is undergoing rapid change due to feminization, however it will take years or may be centuries to efface it completely. By overlooking these factors, males can still find success in engineering. On the other hand, to find success in an engineering career, women must not only focus on giving complete attention to their work but must also equally find a workplace, which places strong, emphasize on egalitarianism and women empowerment [3]. This is because unlike men, women are the primary care-giv ers in the domestic sphere. Therefore, they have certain obligations to be performed in their personal life as well. Therefore, men and women differ in the above aspect in finding success at an engineering career. To find success at an engineering career, women must be assertive and have strong personalities. In the engineering world, there is a tendency of men exercising their domination over the other gender in the workplace simply because men outnumber women in huge numbers. Women in the engineering sector must know how to make their voice be heard and listened to incase of any conflict or opposition, which occurs frequently in the engineering field. On the other hand, males can be of meek disposition and yet find success at an engineering career courtesy by their merit, brilliance and dedication [4]. Therefore, men and women differ in the above aspect in finding success at an engineering career. To find success at an engineering career, males must join a formidable work team. An exceptional team can inspire its fellow male employees to strive hard and give their best. It is well known that inspiring company inspires one to perform hard for success. Contrastingly, this is not applicable for the other gender. Female engineers must not only choose an exceptional team, but also a team in which every team members support the image of women working in a male dominated career [5]. It would be much more advantageous if the team they choose comprises people of both the genders because then only female engineers can work harmoniously and achieve professional credit. Therefore, men and women differ in the above aspect in finding success at an engineering career. To find success at an engineering career, males are required to work industriously and contribute massively in enhancing the productivity of their engineering firms. Hard work is an important requisite if not the most important of all, to enjoy prosperity. On the other hand, women must not only work industriously but must also work sharply. Women must work sharp in the sense that they must trust their instincts while doing their job. In the perceptions of many engineering specialists, female engineers are still considered to be inferior to male engineers. The above disparity might be due to ingrained gender bias or any other issue but the truth is clear. It can be the case that the immediate supervisor of a female engineer holds disfavor against female engineers and think them to be technically and professionally incapable [6].Therefore, to evade discriminatory discharge or other professional unfairness, female engineers must strive to put smart efforts in the workplace. Therefore, m en and women differ in the above aspect in finding success at an engineering career. To achieve professional success at an engineering career, the socio-cultural customs of the country in which the female engineer is working also affects the success factor in their professional domain. The influence of the organization has been already discussed. Equally important is the influence projected by the country in which the organization is situated. However, it might sound invidious and prejudicial, but the stark reality is that some nations strongly favor women empowerment while other nations are still entangled in the chains of medieval chauvinism [7]. Therefore, when a talented female engineer is employed in a progressive country, the path of achieving professional meritocracy becomes plain sailing and less cumbersome. On the other hand, male engineers do not have to expend excess time and effort in finding a progressive country to work as because males possess the birthright and the freedom to pursue any occupation of their choice in all the countries of the world [8]. Therefore, men and women differ in the above aspect in finding success at an engineering career. Conclusively, it can be said that capable engineers irrespective of their gender are deserving of professional applause and commendation. All engineers work assiduously and promote massively to the advancement of the economies of the countries in which they work and live. Unfortunately, female engineers incessantly face discrimination and sexism injected by the male colleagues or by the community, at large. This occurs due to perceived masculine superficiality in the field of engineering. Despite being professionally efficient and astute, female engineers have to combat huge complex obstacles to reach the pinnacles of success in engineering. References "Five Major Shifts in 100 Years of Engineering Education - IEEE Journals Magazine",, 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 01- Dec- 2017]. C. Moss-Racusin, J. Dovidio, V. Brescoll, M. Graham and J. Handelsman, "Science faculty's subtle gender biases favor male students", 2017. . C. Hoyt, "Gender bias in employment contexts: A closer examination of the role incongruity principle", 2017. "Yes, I do belong: the women who stay in engineering",Taylor Francis, 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 01- Dec- 2017]. K. Randeree, "Workforce Nationalization in the Gulf Cooperation Council States",, 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 01- Dec- 2017]. "Engineering ExchangesSocial Psychological and Personality Science - William M. Hall, Toni Schmader, Elizabeth Croft, 2015",, 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 01- Dec- 2017]. K. Lyness and M. Judiesch, "Gender Egalitarianism and Work-Life Balance for Managers: Multisource Perspectives in 36 Countries", 2017. 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 01- Dec- 2017]