Saturday, December 28, 2019
A Timeline of the Transatlantic Slave Trade and its Abolition 16th Century 1562 1564-65 1567 1607 1618 1619 1623 1625 1626 1649 1655 1655 1656 1657 1660s 1672 1675 1668 1683 1685-86 1690 1692 1698 1699 1702-13 1727 Sir John Hawkins, backed by Gonson and other London merchants, leaves Plymouth with three ships, making him the first English slave trader. He takes 300 Africans and trades them with the Spanish and Portuguese for sugar, hides, spices and pearls Backed by Queen Elizabeth I, Hawkins makes his second slavery voyage trading 500 Africans for precious metals, pearls and jewels Hawkins makes his third and final slavery voyage, again with the QueenÃ¢â¬â¢s investment, involving six ships, including one captained by his cousin Sir FrancisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Chief Justice Lord Mansfield rules that enslaved people in England cannot be forced to return to the West Indies. This ruling does not entitle slaves in England their freedom John Stedman joins a military expedition to suppress a slave rebellion in Surinam, South America and is appalled by the inhumanity shown to Africans. In 1796 he publishes Ã¢â¬ËThe Narrative of a Five Years Expedition against the Revolted Negroes of SurinamÃ¢â¬â¢, a full account of his experiences that becomes a classic of abolitionist literature John Wesley, an early leader of the Methodist movement, publishes anti-slavery tract Thoughts Upon Slavery 1775 1775-83 1778 1781 1783 1786 1787 1788 1788 Royal Commission is set up to take evidence on the slave trade American War of Independence. France seizes Grenada, Tobago and St Kitts from Britain but retains only Tobago after the Peace of Versailles The Knight vs Wedderburn legal case in Edinburgh rules that enslavement is incompatible with Scots law The Zong case causes outrage and strengthens the abolition campaign: 470 Africans are forced onto the slave ship Zong. The cramped conditions are so appalling that seven crew members and sixty Africans died from sickness; the remaining 133 sick
Friday, December 20, 2019
Mr. Shimerdas Suicide in Willa Cathers My Antonia My Antonia, by Willa Cather, is a novel about Jim Burden and his relationship and experiences growing up with Antonia Shimerda in Nebraska. Throughout the book Jim reflects on his memories of Nebraska and the Shimerda family, often times in a sad and depressing tone. One of the main ways Cather is able to provoke these sad emotions within the reader is through the suicide of AntoniaÃ¢â¬â¢s father, Mr. Shimerda. His death was unexpected by everyone and it is thought that homesickness is what drove him to take his own life. Homesickness was surely felt by Mr. Shimerda, as it was by many, but it was the failure to adequately find a way to provide for his family that sent Mr. Shimerda into aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Certainly before he left Bohemia he believed that they had more than enough money to get by. The reality of his familyÃ¢â¬â¢s circumstances was just beginning to show their impact. Antonia points out to Jim that Mr. Shimerda looks ill Ã¢â¬Å"My papa sick all the time Ã¢â¬ Tony panted as we flew. He not look good, JimÃ¢â¬ (36). It is obvious that Mr. Shimerda was terribly stressed and was staring to show it physically. Most likely he looked ill due to not sleeping and eating. Nevertheless, Mr. Shimerda wanted desperately do the best that he could for his family. He moved his family with the hopes of finding good husbands for his daughters and wealth and land for his son. He calls onto Jim to teach Antonia to read. He does so in a very pleading, helpless way which leaves an unforgettable memory in JimÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. Jim takes on the task, but unfortunately Mr. Shimerda gets little help from anyone else in the town for anything. Mr. Shimerda never really understands why he receives virtually little help from neighbors getting the farm going. He knows nothing about running the farm, and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even have the appropriate tools necessary. He and his family on the other hand are very trusting and would give the shirts off their backs to any one who needed anything from them. Ã¢â¬Å"There never were such a people as the Shimerdas for wanting to give away everything they hadÃ¢â¬ (38). He loses more hope for help when Krajiek tells him that even going into townShow MoreRelatedEssay about The Beauty of the Lack of Structure in My Antonia1587 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAccording to James E. Miller Jr.s, My Antonia; A Frontier Drama of Time, Willa Cathers novel, one of her most important and perhaps most popular works, is defective in structure (Bloom, 21).Ã He quotes E. K. Brown, who defends that: Everything in the book is there to convey a feeling, not to tell a story, not to establish a social philosophy, not even to animate a group of characters (21).Ã The reader undoubtedly feels the impact of the story of Antonia and Jim as Cather intended, but criticsRead MoreChoices Affect More than Just the Choice Maker in Willa CatherÃ¢â¬â¢s My Antonia647 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesconnected to them. In Willa CatherÃ¢â¬â¢s My Antonia, a choice to end their life by their own hands causes the one person who is closest to the deceased to make decisions based on their choice. Ã¢â¬Å"Things would have been very different with poor Antonia if her father had livedÃ¢â¬ (Cather 76). In chapter fourteen of Ã¢â¬Å"The Shimerdas,Ã¢â¬ AntoniaÃ¢â¬â¢s father, Mr. Shimerda, commits suicide. While Mr. Shimerda untimely death causes anguish to his family and friends, his death adversely affects Antonia the most. Things canRead More My Antonia Essay: Theme of Separation1004 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTheme of Separation in My Antonia nbsp; My Antonia, by Willa Cather, is a book tracing the story of a young man, Jim Burden, and his relationship with a young woman, Antonia Shimerda. Jim narrates the entire story in first person, relating accounts and memories of his childhood with Antonia. He traces his journey to the Nebraska where he and Antonia meet and grow up. Jim looks back on all of his childhood scenes with Antonia with nearly heartbreaking nostalgia. My Antonia, is a book that makesRead MoreEssay The Trials and Tribulations of Antonia1737 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessome pay worth the risk? In Willa CatherÃ¢â¬â¢s My Ã ntonia, Ã ntonia faces struggles as a young child, including language barriers, poverty, harsh living conditions, and her beloved fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death. However, as Ã ntonia grows into a woman, she must face struggles of a social nature, such as the division of social and economic classes, as well as social opprobrium. While immigration to America may open many doors for immigrants, it is equally fraught with obstacles. Likewise, Ã ntonia must face many adversitiesRead More Comparing the American Dream in My Antonia, Neighbor Rosicky, and 0 Pioneers!2900 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesThe American Dream in My Antonia, Neighbor Rosicky, and 0 Pioneers! Ã Ã Ã Ã While many American immigrant narratives concentrate on the culture shock that awaits those who arrive from the more rural Old World to live in a city for the first time, Willa Cathers immigrants, often coming from urban European settings, face the vast and empty land of the plains. Guy Reynolds notes that the massive outburst of America westwards was in part powered by the explosion of immigrants through the easternRead MoreWilla Cather s My Antonia And O Pioneers !1919 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagespioneers were expecting the land to work with them, but it was actually working against them. Winters were hard, and many pioneers gave up and left. The few who remained were proven to be strong and determined to force the land to cooperate. In Willa CatherÃ¢â¬â¢s My Ã ntonia and O Pioneers!, her purpose was to show readers that women could be strong pioneers, overcoming the adversity caused by the land, as seen through similes, personification, juxtaposition, and arrangement. AlexandraÃ¢â¬â¢s brothers compare themselves
Thursday, December 12, 2019
Question: Discuss About The Analytical Procedure Clients Business Risks? Answer: Introduction GPSA Limited is a medical technology company that was incorporated in 1992 as the pioneer in medical technological research and distribution of medical equipment. In previous years from its inception, the company has relied on its internal control systems based on its results satisfaction of extensive control tests (Shim, 2011). After discussions with the clients, the company has made no changes in the internal controls systems while it also does not have an audit control or internal audit department. Therefore extensive audit is required especially in its internal controls to steer the company clear from wastages, theft and pilferages while out rightly going to profitability (Corsi, Castellano, Lamboglia Mancini, n.d.). This is the auditable areas of accounting; Accounts receivable These are the debtors that owe the company money. A bad debtors accounts means that the company will have problems with their cash flows. According to the ratios of 2017 unaudited report, the companys days in accounts receivables stands at 83.06 days. To put it in perspective, it will take roughly 84 days for a debtor to pay for the item that he or she took on debt (Corsi, Castellano, Lamboglia Mancini, n.d.). This is unacceptable, the higher the number of days, the less the operating cash flows of the company. In fact, in the audited reports of 2016, the days in accounts receivable stands at 60.65 days while the audited financial ratios for 2015 stands at 53.24 days. This shows an increase in the number of days the company is willing to let the debtors have its goods and services on credit. The company should avoid extending the debt window as it will only hurt the companys financial and cash flow position. Current investments In current investments the ratios used are times interest earned and current ratio. Investments bring interest to the company. The company has invested in properties and has bought multiple numbers of properties and leased them mostly to healthcare facilities. This will bring in rent which will be regarded as interest or revenue on investments (Chambers Rand, 2011). Property Assets The property assets account is a secondary account of the company as they have entered the property market just for diversification. Although initially the property market was relatively profitable, the market prices for property market have been tumbling (Chambers Rand, 2011). This is also partly due to global economic trends and a market that is so unstable in Australia. Intangible Assets They consist of companys goodwill, patented rights and intellectual properties to mention just a few. Goodwill is the companys brand name in value and how best GPSA limited has sold itself over the years. As a manufacturer of medical equipment the company is doing extensive research and development to innovate and patent its intellectual development (Gay Simnett, n.d.). Research and development capitalization There is extensive capital involved in research and development. GPSA limited can either fund its RD through its cash reserves or choose a strategic partner in its research and development. It has chosen the latter through a bank loan of $5 million to invest more in research and development (Gay Simnett, n.d.). The analysis of these accounts shows a struggling company unable to match its previous years performances. Perhaps, the economic environment and great competition from its rivals is eating greatly into its business a marketing it has dominated for the last 25 years. Its investment is also on a decline as shown by the interest earned ratio and the profitability of the company (Halpert, 2011). Although it is doing well in research and development, the company has again faced stiff competition with rivals coming up with ideas before it finishes its research therefore losing out on the property rights. According to their nature, analytical procedures provide different levels of security; to the extent that the level of security decreases may require the incorporation of another type of procedure or, where appropriate, non-application of that procedure. When evaluating the reliability of the information, the auditor should take the following into account for the information available: the source, comparability, nature and relevance and the controls established in the preparation (Halpert, 2011). Likewise, it is necessary to evaluate the possibility of applying together with substantive analytical procedures, details. For example, for the validation of the client balance, it is possible for the auditor to perform substantive analytical tests (evaluation of the seniority of balances) and to apply detailed tests (check of subsequent collections). Audit steps to reduce risk There are several steps that can reduce the audit risk. Firstly and of most importance is to talk to the client, GPSA Limited on the material misstatement that were raised in the audited accounts of 2015 and 2016 (Arens, Elder, Beasley Hogan, n.d.). The company should also give an explanation on what was done on the issues raised on the previous accounts. Another step is audit planning. Strategic planning on how to conduct the audit will reduce the audit risk. Analyze the ratios and additional information to outline business risks that GPSA faces ROE- return on equity falls from 2017 to 2017. In 2015,it was 22.17 against 7.19 in 2017 which mean GPSA performance in comparison to equity has gone down. Return on Total Assets- has also declined in 30 years due to tumbling prices of property markets and the reason is that it has no return on assets (Arens, Elder, Beasley Hogan, n.d.). Gross margin-this is varying on year end. In 2017, unaudited ratio it was at 31.76%, this means it has risen albeit marginally. Net profit margin- this are profits after all costs and operations. At 10.38%, it means that the costs in 2017 have increased maybe to alarming levels. Times interest earned- as the ratios show, it is decreasing. In 2015, it was at 4.10 in 2016 it was at 3.51 and in 2017, it was at 1.90. it means that the net interest from investment is falling. Days in inventory- at 166.53 days in 2017 unaudited reports, the equipment are staying too much in the warehouse (Arens, Elder, Beasley Hogan, n.d.). Current ratio- it is fluctuation and means that GPSA is doing not so well Debt equity ratio- this is the level of debt in comparison with equity of the company. Business risk faced by the company Business risk is the result of events, circumstances, actions or inactions that adversely affect the entity, which impairs its ability to achieve its objectives. Business risk also includes events that arise from changes in the company, complexity in specific areas or lack of timely changes. A business risk can have immediate consequences and generate a risk of material error pertaining to transactions, balance sheet accounts and disclosures of assertions and financial statements (Rupert Kern, 2016). They include collusion of customers and staff during delivery of tiles. Fraud from financial controller and the staff is also a part of business risk. Untimely recording of receipts is also a business risk in waiting. Return of equipment by customers is also a business risk (Rupert Kern, 2016). Internal controls- effective internal control Effective control- partially filled delivery invoices is marked as hold on invoice and the dispatch department of the financial supervisor is responsible for follow up after 30 days. The risk alleviated is that there is no unintentional delay of invoices or lost invoices which cannot be tracked. Test of control- follow up on the invoice and labeling of the invoice are the test of control (Rupert Kern, 2016). Effective control- the return of the medical equipment by the customers mainly due to inferior quality, oversupply or incorrect specification. Risk alleviation- ensuring that medical equipment are clearly labeled and the right quantity is supplied. Also, the company should make sure that it meets or quality controls in manufacture.Test control- follows up with the customers to learn on quality of equipment and retraining the staff. Effective control- trade receivables clerk is responsible for generating invoices and the computer automatically retrieves the price code tag from the sales master file. The risk alleviated is that there is no fraud in trade receivables since there are computer generated programs that cannot be used to defraud the company. Test control- creating internal control systems that are computer assisted to reduce human contact. Effective control- In the unaudited financial reports of 2017, the companys times interest earned ratio was at 1.90, while the audited financials for 2016 stood at 3.51 (Angappa Gunasekaran., 2010). This means that the interest on investment is decreasing as a result of slowdown in investment policy. This means that the interest rates are on a down ward trend. This partly due to falling of property market values across the country and the market value of global trends Effective control- The financial controller acts as a safeguard in which the companies financial assets are secured and completely. The audit risk in research and development are aimed at ensuring that the money is effectively put into correct usage. List and justify the weaknesses in internal control for sales and trade receivables For the development of basic auditing procedures for accounts receivable, sales and collections should be performed as substantive tests or compliance tests, the extent and scope of which depends on confidence in the company's internal control system. For the review and evaluation of the internal control are detailed in the same order and under the same headings of the applicable audit procedures and that must be carried out according to the circumstances, both for the compliance tests and for the substantive tests. The program of applicable audit procedures indicates the steps of compliance testing and substantive testing, the extent and scope of which depend, as already stated, on confidence in the internal control system, determined on the basis of the use of questionnaires for review and evaluation. The determination of importance begins when the auditor decides the preliminary criterion on the importance of the total financial statements. Acceptable audit risk is assessed for t he financial statements as a whole, and is not usually assigned to individual accounts or targets on an individual basis. The inherent risk is determined for each target for an account such as accounts receivable (Angappa Gunasekaran., 2010). The confirmation of accounts receivable is proof of details of the most important accounts receivable. We analyze briefly the confirmation by studying the appropriate tests for each of the objectives related to the balances, and then are reviewed separately in greater detail. The analysis of the details of balances details for the accounts receivable that follows. It assumes that the auditor has completed evidence planning work papers and has decided the planned detection risks for the details tests for each of the audit objectives related to the balances (Angappa Gunasekaran., 2010). The selected audit procedures and sample size strongly depends on whether the evidence planned for a given objective is abundant, medium or low. The discussion fo cuses on audit objectives related to accounts receivable balances. General Most of the audit evidence of accounts receivable and reserves for bad debts is based on the ratio of customers by age of balances. An aging check balance is a list of the balances in the accounts master file per cobra at the balance sheet date. It includes the outstanding balances of the individual customers and a breakdown of each balance by the time that has elapsed between the date of sale and the date of the balance. The test of the information of a relationship of customers by age of balances for the details links is a necessary procedure in the audit, usually this is done before any other test to assure to the auditor that the universe that is being verified agrees with the greater general and the master file of accounts receivable (Scandizzo, 2013). As a part of the test, the column of totals and the columns showing the seniority are added together, and the total of the customer ratio is compared with the highest one generat References Angappa Gunasekaran. (2010). Handbook on business information systems [electronic resource]. World Scientific. Arens, A., Elder, R., Beasley, M., Hogan, C. Auditing and assurance services. Chambers, A., Rand, G. (2011). The operations Auditing Handbook. New York, NY: John Wiley Sons. Corsi, K., Castellano, N., Lamboglia, R., Mancini, D. Reshaping Accounting and Management Control Systems. Gay, G., Simnett, R. Auditing and assurance services in Australia. Halpert, B. (2011).Auditing cloud computing. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Ridley, J. (2008). Cutting edge internal auditing. Chichester, England: Wiley. Rupert, T., Kern, B. (2016). Advances in accounting education. Bingley, U.K.: Emerald. Scandizzo, S. (2013). Risk and governance. London: Risk Books. Shim, J. (2011). Internal control and fraud detection. Cranbrook: Global Professional.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Question: Discuss abouts the Success in Engineering Profession. Answer: Engineering is an occupation, which consists of resolving complications with the utilization of expert esoteric and experiential skills. The study of engineering encompasses the concepts of arithmetic, technology, fact-finding, draft blueprint, conservation and fabrication. Every sector and every nation requires the assistance of engineers in order to function effortlessly and to provide a comfortable living standard to all its citizens. Engineers are the architects of a modern society. In many instances, it can be heard that the profession of engineering falls under the domain of males. Males are abounding in this profession with the exception of very few females . This essay outlines the fact to construct an argumentative essay with respect to the existing differences between each gender at succeeding at an engineering career. The essay includes a general conception of unfairness faced by female engineers and subsequently the areas where clear distinctions exist in the path of s uccess for both the genders. Engineering is a field where clear professional distinctions between men and women exist all over the world. In the engineering schools and universities, men and women graduate in equal numbers. Additionally, women sometimes outperform men in securing good grades. However, when they graduate from their engineering colleges, the success path differs massively. For men, the journey of success is very clear-cut. Primarily, men must get into good colleges, obtain excellent grades, and secure satisfying jobs and then ultimately find success by being productive and efficient performers. Contrastingly, women are not so lucky in this arena. They have to combat many additional issues, which may or may not be related to their profession. Even in this 21st century society, particularly the subtle societal effect of patriarchy places undue restrictions on women . This further proves to be a hindrance for women in achieving professional success as admittedly at present engineering is still a m ale-dominated sphere. To find success in an engineering career, males must give complete focus on their careers irrespective of the branch of engineering, workplace style and place of origin. The notion of equality and the manner of work-life stability practiced by the organization are comparatively of less importance to males in engineering. In this modern world, men are still considered to be the primary breadwinner of families and they are expected to contribute less effort to domesticity. Though this phenomenon is undergoing rapid change due to feminization, however it will take years or may be centuries to efface it completely. By overlooking these factors, males can still find success in engineering. On the other hand, to find success in an engineering career, women must not only focus on giving complete attention to their work but must also equally find a workplace, which places strong, emphasize on egalitarianism and women empowerment . This is because unlike men, women are the primary care-giv ers in the domestic sphere. Therefore, they have certain obligations to be performed in their personal life as well. Therefore, men and women differ in the above aspect in finding success at an engineering career. To find success at an engineering career, women must be assertive and have strong personalities. In the engineering world, there is a tendency of men exercising their domination over the other gender in the workplace simply because men outnumber women in huge numbers. Women in the engineering sector must know how to make their voice be heard and listened to incase of any conflict or opposition, which occurs frequently in the engineering field. On the other hand, males can be of meek disposition and yet find success at an engineering career courtesy by their merit, brilliance and dedication . Therefore, men and women differ in the above aspect in finding success at an engineering career. To find success at an engineering career, males must join a formidable work team. An exceptional team can inspire its fellow male employees to strive hard and give their best. It is well known that inspiring company inspires one to perform hard for success. Contrastingly, this is not applicable for the other gender. Female engineers must not only choose an exceptional team, but also a team in which every team members support the image of women working in a male dominated career . It would be much more advantageous if the team they choose comprises people of both the genders because then only female engineers can work harmoniously and achieve professional credit. Therefore, men and women differ in the above aspect in finding success at an engineering career. To find success at an engineering career, males are required to work industriously and contribute massively in enhancing the productivity of their engineering firms. Hard work is an important requisite if not the most important of all, to enjoy prosperity. On the other hand, women must not only work industriously but must also work sharply. Women must work sharp in the sense that they must trust their instincts while doing their job. In the perceptions of many engineering specialists, female engineers are still considered to be inferior to male engineers. The above disparity might be due to ingrained gender bias or any other issue but the truth is clear. It can be the case that the immediate supervisor of a female engineer holds disfavor against female engineers and think them to be technically and professionally incapable .Therefore, to evade discriminatory discharge or other professional unfairness, female engineers must strive to put smart efforts in the workplace. Therefore, m en and women differ in the above aspect in finding success at an engineering career. To achieve professional success at an engineering career, the socio-cultural customs of the country in which the female engineer is working also affects the success factor in their professional domain. The influence of the organization has been already discussed. Equally important is the influence projected by the country in which the organization is situated. However, it might sound invidious and prejudicial, but the stark reality is that some nations strongly favor women empowerment while other nations are still entangled in the chains of medieval chauvinism . Therefore, when a talented female engineer is employed in a progressive country, the path of achieving professional meritocracy becomes plain sailing and less cumbersome. On the other hand, male engineers do not have to expend excess time and effort in finding a progressive country to work as because males possess the birthright and the freedom to pursue any occupation of their choice in all the countries of the world . Therefore, men and women differ in the above aspect in finding success at an engineering career. Conclusively, it can be said that capable engineers irrespective of their gender are deserving of professional applause and commendation. All engineers work assiduously and promote massively to the advancement of the economies of the countries in which they work and live. Unfortunately, female engineers incessantly face discrimination and sexism injected by the male colleagues or by the community, at large. This occurs due to perceived masculine superficiality in the field of engineering. Despite being professionally efficient and astute, female engineers have to combat huge complex obstacles to reach the pinnacles of success in engineering. References "Five Major Shifts in 100 Years of Engineering Education - IEEE Journals Magazine",Ieeexplore.ieee.org, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/6185632/. [Accessed: 01- Dec- 2017]. C. Moss-Racusin, J. Dovidio, V. Brescoll, M. Graham and J. Handelsman, "Science faculty's subtle gender biases favor male students", 2017. . C. Hoyt, "Gender bias in employment contexts: A closer examination of the role incongruity principle", 2017. "Yes, I do belong: the women who stay in engineering",Taylor Francis, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19378629.2013.855781. [Accessed: 01- Dec- 2017]. K. Randeree, "Workforce Nationalization in the Gulf Cooperation Council States",Papers.ssrn.com, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2825910. [Accessed: 01- Dec- 2017]. "Engineering ExchangesSocial Psychological and Personality Science - William M. Hall, Toni Schmader, Elizabeth Croft, 2015",Journals.sagepub.com, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1948550615572637. [Accessed: 01- Dec- 2017]. K. Lyness and M. Judiesch, "Gender Egalitarianism and Work-Life Balance for Managers: Multisource Perspectives in 36 Countries", 2017. 2017. [Online]. Available: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2012.00589.x/fulll. [Accessed: 01- Dec- 2017]
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Ostomy Essays Ostomy Essay Ostomy Essay November 27, 2007 My Experience Wearing an Ostomy Bag At the beginning of this assignment my first reaction was to not wear the ostomy bag and write a paper on why I did not want to wear it. But when I sat down and thought about I could not think of a single good reason why not to wear it. Working in nursing homes and hospitals you take care of a lot of patients with ostomy bags and you wonder what life would be like if that were you but just like that the thought is gone and you canÃ¢â¬â¢t imagine it. Cutting out the stoma size on the sticky paper was harder than I thought it would be, the paper is tuff and hard to cut in a straight circle. The chocolate pudding and applesauce that was inserted into the bag helped make the experience even more realistic. After having my ostomy bag placed on by one of our instructors I kind of forgot about it. Luckily I had on a large white shirt so nobody could see the imprint of the bag. Once I left school I had some errands to take care of and decided that I would just have to go to the grocery store with the bag in place. While walking threw the grocery store I noticed that the bag had a little gas and was starting to grow. Buy the time I reached the check out counter my white shirt was covered in chocolate and applesauce. Wearing the ostomy bag was a good learning experience. I feel that all nursing students should have to wear one. It gives you the opportunity to walk in your patients shoes. The next time I have a patient with an ostomy bag or any type of assistive device, I will be able to reflect back on my experience and have more empathy for what the patient is going threw.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Mousetrap by Agatha Christie - Essay Example When the culprit is caught, everyone is shocked and relieved. The play comes to an end with the Ralstons exchanging anniversary gifts. There are eight inhabitants of Monkswell Manor. There are Mollie and Giles Ralston who are the hosts. Christopher Wren is the most suspicious one since he behaves in a peculiar manner. Mrs Boyle is an old woman who is never pleased by anything and only talks to complain about something or the other. Her presence is not appreciated by anybody and she is later killed in the hotel. Mr Paravicini is a foreigner. Major Metcalf has retired from army and later we find out is a policeman in disguise. Miss Casewell is an odd woman who seems to have had a difficult childhood. She turns out to be the sister of the escaped murderer. The last guest is Detective Sergeant Trotter who is not actually a man of law but one defying it. He is, in fact, the killer and Miss CasewellÃ¢â¬â¢s brother. Later in the play we find out that Trottor - also called Georgie - is the man behind the murders. His awful childhood led him to first killing Mrs Lyon who did not take care of him or his siblings, resulting in the death of one of them. Then he strangles Mrs Boyle since she sent them under Mrs LyonÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility. He tries to kill Mrs Mollie Ralston whose help he had asked for but not received. He is not successful in his attempt but it is clear that despite the time passed, Georgie still carried the grudge with him. It affected him mentally till he took matters in his own hands to take revenge, planning deaths of the people who he thought did him wrong. Agatha Christie has a great way with words but speaking them out loud makes quite a difference too. Mrs Boyle always gives off the air of a woman unimpressed with the world. Mollie has these naive comments to say. Miss Casewell slips up at times, giving off the look of someone always occupied with something else. All the characters have a certain way of
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Nursing Health Care Fair - Essay Example Owing to such attributes related to such a mission, how does the hospital management ensure attainment of the mission through incorporating both the staff and systems? The second question relates to the Hospital Rehab Project. For over a long duration, patients attending rehab programs have done so against their will leading to engagement of the same practices once these victims get through with the rehab programs. Consequently, emergencies for rehab services may be sought at any period during the day. Stoughton Hospital hours of operations for the rehab are 8.00 am Ã¢â¬â 4.00 pm on weekdays while on the weekends assumes full closure. How effective, therefore, is the rehab project in ensuring follow-up for rehab victims as well as ensuring dealing with concerns relating to emergencies? Lastly, Stoughton Hospital is accredited as a not for profit institution an indication that the focus of operations aims at delivering clinical services without concern for profits. The current heal thcare system is characterized by rising costs of health services that result from increased costs of labor among other essentials in providing sufficient health care (Kador, J. (2012). How does the hospital management ensure striking a balance between these growing demands as well as the changes within the healthcare sector with the aspect of maintaining the organization as not for profit? A focus on the job and the human resource portal indicate that Mercy Health System serves as an equal employment opportunity provider. Consequently, the organization emphasizes how such achievements are enhanced by focusing on issues related discrimination that may result or attributed to age, sex, race nation origin, as well as color among others. However, more are a times where different organizations present such detailed paper programs only on paper while the situation on the ground where the worker operates states otherwise. That
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Consumer Personality Theories - Essay Example Horney classified individuals, on the context of child-parent relationship, as either:- Compliant Personality - one who desires to be loved, wanted, and appreciated by others. Aggressive Personality - one who moves against or competes with others, desires to excel and win admiration. Detached Personality - one who seeks emotional & behavioural freedom from others, desires independence, self-sufficiency and freedom from obligations. Cohen's Extension Study - In further extending Horney's classification, Cohen posited the relationship between the 3 orientations and consumer behavior. In the study, Cohen implemented a CAD scale (a Likert-type instrument of thirty-five items) measuring 15 items based on product usage, brand usage, and media preferences (Berkman and Gilson). Cohen's Hypothesis - Cohen propounded that consumers can be classified into:- Compliant - likely inclined to respond favorably to products enhancing social relations Aggressive - inclined towards products associated with status and successful images Detached - inclined towards products appealing to their independent nature 2.C. Trait Theory Trait theory proposes the use of traits - Allport defines traits as the attributes that make a person functional and identify the given person (Berkman and Gilson) - as the factors that construct personality and by which behavior is influenced. Berkman and Gilson indicated that there is no consensus as to a set of traits applicable to all individuals. The three assumptions of this theory: a. Assumes that individuals possess relatively stable behavioral tendencies b. People differ in... Social-psychological theorists assert that social factors ought to be considered the key determinants of personality (Engel and Blackwell). Karen Horney, a proponent of the social-psychological theory, further developed the theory through her taxonomy of personality orientation. Horney classified individuals, on the context of child-parent relationship, as either:- Cohen's Extension Study - In further extending Horney's classification, Cohen posited the relationship between the 3 orientations and consumer behavior. In the study, Cohen implemented a CAD scale (a Likert-type instrument of thirty-five items) measuring 15 items based on product usage, brand usage, and media preferences (Berkman and Gilson). Trait theory proposes the use of traits - Allport defines traits as the attributes that make a person functional and identify the given person (Berkman and Gilson) - as the factors that construct personality and by which behavior is influenced. Berkman and Gilson indicated that there is no consensus as to a set of traits applicable to all individuals. The three assumptions of this theory: With the adoption of the Big Five factor model of personality in recent years, congruity in regards to a set of common t
Friday, November 15, 2019
Supporting ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Learning and Development Unit 4: Supporting ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Learning and Development Identify each of three prime areas and four specific areas of learning. Every child is a unique child; Children learn to be forceful and independent through positive relationships; Children discover and develop well in enabling environments; and Children develop and discover in different methods and at different rates. Planning Ã¢â¬ËPractitioners must consider the individual needs, interests, and stage of progress of every child in their care, have to use this data to plan a challenging and pleasant experience for every child in all of the areas of discovering and development. Focus Ã¢â¬ËPractitioners working alongside the youngest children are anticipated to focus powerfully on the three prime areas, which are the basis for successful discovering in the supplementary four specific areas. The three prime areas imitate the key skills and capacities of all children demand to develop and discover effectively, and come to be prepared for school. It is anticipated that the balance will shift towards an extra equal focus on all areas of discovering as children produce in assurance and skill inside the three prime areas. Home language Ã¢â¬ËProviders have to acquire reasonable steps to offer opportunities for children to develop and use their residence speech in play and learning, supporting their speech progress at home. Providers have to additionally safeguard that children have adequate opportunities to discover and attain a good average in English language throughout the EYFS, safeguarding children are prepared to benefit from the opportunities obtainable to them when they begin Year 1.Ã¢â¬â¢ Play Ã¢â¬ËEach area of learning and progress have to be implemented through planned, purposeful play and throughout a mix of adult-led and child-initiated activityÃ¢â¬ ¦.Children discover by managing their own play, and by taking part in play that is accompanied by adults. There is an ongoing judgement to be made by practitioners concerning the balance between activities managed by children, and activities managed or guided by adults. Practitioners must respond to every childÃ¢â¬â¢s emerging needs and interests, accompanying their progress through warm, positive interaction. As children produce, and as their progress permits, it is anticipated that the balance will softly shift towards more activities managed by adults, to aid children prepare for more formal learning, prepared for Year 1. Key characteristics In arranging and accompanying childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s activities, practitioners have to imitate on the different methods that children discover and imitate these in their practice. Three characteristics of competent teaching and discovering are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Playing and discovering Ã¢â¬ ¢ Active learning Ã¢â¬ ¢ Creating and thinking critically. Key person Each child has to be allocated to a key person. Explain how planning can be devised to promote the individual needs of children. Some children could truly dislike the sense of various material be sensitive to this, softly encourage play but take them at their own pace and level of comfort. Have soaked wipes near so that they can be utilized at any time. converse to parents concerning the benefits of messy play and enthuse its use at home. Permit plenty of periods for these activities. Possessing the activity before lunch will locale pressure on the child and adult during clean up. Connect in ideal that it is OK to become your labour dirty. Individual containers for the material can be of benefit to a child that needs support with boundaries, as a larger container i.e. water tray or sand box can enthuse a withdrawn child to interact through others. Use aged adult sized t-shirts or shirts for youthful children to wear during activities. Roll up sleeves and put on waterproof bibs for babies. Possessing a spare set of clothes is always a good back up. Attempt to position the activity near to where the children can wash their hands. At clean up period, enthuse children to aid have individual fabrics, clearly described storage areas, cleaning line for paintings, dustpan and brush near sand. Planning programmes can additionally create a sense of protection for the children. Planning includes long term Ã¢â¬â looking at the vision for the service Ã¢â¬â and short or medium term programme planning Ã¢â¬â looking at the day to day and weekly running of the service. Planning as a team supports the team in working together and the conception of a sense of ownership. Arranging requires setting aside period on a weekly basis after everyone can attend. It permits workers period to debate observations on the needs and interests of individual children and the group and next how to plan for these. This additionally helps individual staff members to recognise what their role is every single date, thus ensuring a smoother running service. It is vital to study your strategies and their implementation to notify upcoming planning. We can advance the progress of thinking and reasoning in young children by providing two curriculum components Ã¢â¬â arranging and reflection. Both are thoughtful activities that support children to consider what they are doing and what they are learning. They additionally advance a broad range of other academic, social and artistic skills. Involve children in arranging and enthuse them to recognise their goals and consider the options for achieving them. For example, they could consider what they will do, whereas they will do it, what materials they will use, who they will do it alongside, how long it will take and whether they will require help. Involve children in reflection and encourage them to go beyond just revealing what theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve done. This helps them become aware of what they learned in the procedure, what was interesting, how they feel concerning it and what they can do to bu ild on the experience. When children plan, carry out, and study their own discovering activities, their behaviour is more purposeful and they present larger on speech and supplementary intellectual measures. Describe how the practitioner can support childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning and development in each area of learning. When preparing environments for children, it is important to consider their age and stage of development. We also need to ensure that the experiences and play opportunities offered cover the areas of development outlined in the EYFS. We also need to consider whether the environment meets the needs of individual children. Children develop at different rates. Some children need more challenging activities while others may need a different type of activity or different resources. Observing individual children to see how the engage with the environment will help us to plan appropriately. The practitioner should always make sure that the environment around the child is safe if not this could but the child in hazard, and also should make sure the environment meet each child individual needs. The practitioners should guide the children of being individual and do their own activity. As well as working together with parents and carers practitioners need to recognise that this should be taking place with multi- agencies working together too. Setting should be pointing parents in the directions of other agencies which could be of benefit to them. Multi agency working is different services, agencies, professionals and practitioners who work together to provide services for children and parents. These services are sometimes integrated together to offer a more effective care for young children. Children in the early years may have a wide range of needs and working together with other professionals can have a positive impact on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s health, development and learning. Professionals that work together with children and their families can share lots of information. They can agree which ways they may assess and plan for a particular child. Both children and the parents can be involved in any planning this will help the child to reach his full potential. It is also important that confidentiality is maintained at all times. By sharing information and all professionals concerned working together the outcome for the child can only be positive. The arrangement of the environment plays a key role in guiding the behaviour of young children. A poorly arranged physical setting actually sends messages which may trigger behaviour such as aggressive play, running, or superficial interactions with toys and materials. Altering the physical space and layout of the room can eliminate such challenging behaviours. Observe children closely to determine what messages the physical environment is sending. If it appears that the space suggests undesirable behaviours to children like running indoorsbe willing to modify the arrangement of equipment and furnishings to send a different message.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
"A 'place in the mind', wherever or whatever it may be, can only ever be fictitious. In the act of its creation, the 'place' is formed by a process that necessitates an imaginative leap; it does not actually exist, and therefore its constituent elements have to be imagined, made up by the creator. For a place - in this case, America - to exist in the realms of the mind, it must be a place that exists outside of a corporeal, material reality. Fiction becomes the perfect arena to present this place, because its very nature allows imagined, idealised and remembered places to exist, a venue where the intangibility of these places can achieve a tangible realisation. Between the pages of a book, the place in the mind can become real, if only for a while; the America that exists between the pages of its nation's fiction is often an America of the mind, but an America that for a fleeting moment achieves a kind of actuality." Nathaniel Hawthorne's "Blithedale Romance", is the first person narration of a man bent upon joining a world that has no need of him by imposing an arbitrary order upon his reality. Blithedale, is a novel of polarities. Just as Coverdale imposes order on reality, Zenobia, the feminine voice of creation, understands reality as a fragmented thing that cannot have order forced upon it. We see in the novel oppositions in communities, in social order, and in place. But, Hawthorne also gives us a richly crafted story about what it is that defines community and the common spirit or communal soul. The romance, of this book, is not just that of man and woman, but of the romantic ideals of society and of order. Coverdale, who is the namesake of the primary translator of the King James bible, is a man bent upon making the world be what he wants it to be. Hawthorne's, The Blithedale Romance, provides the reader with a set of beliefs, ideals, and aspirations, that become ideologies that actually mask reality thus pitting the utopian hopes of Blithedale against actual human behaviors - which makes for a difficult conflict at best Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts, into an old Puritan family. Hawthorne's own 17th-century ancestors, as he frankly admitted, had been among the real-life Puritan zealots. "Young Goodman Brown" is a story of initiation. Evil is the nature of mankind.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
After the occurrence of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, President George W. Bush signed a law, the PATRIOT Act. The PATRIOT Act made it easier for the law enforcement officials to use certain techniques such as wiretapping and other surveillance technologies to aid in the war against terrorism. The reason why this topic needs to be addressed is located in the following quote: Ã¢â¬Å"The probability that people are terrorists given that NSAÃ¢â¬â¢s system of surveillance identifies them as terrorists is only p=0.2308, which is far from one and well below flipping a coin. NSAÃ¢â¬â¢s [National Security AgencyÃ¢â¬â¢s] domestic monitoring of everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s email and phone calls is useless for finding terroristsÃ¢â¬ (Rudmin, Alston P29). Many people argue that the government has gone too far with allowing violations of the Bill of Rights in the name of protecting the country from terrorists. Although some people argue that the government should use all means to fight against terrorism, the government should not be engaged in the surveillance of their citizens in the interests of national security because people expect privacy in their communications, travel and personal records and activities. Some people argue that the government should use all means to fight against terrorism. Alexander Hamilton, one of our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s founding fathers, believed that the government needed to have a free hand in protecting the people. Ã¢â¬Å"The power to protect the nation ought to exist without limitation, it is impossible to foresee or define the extend and variety of national exigencies, or the correspondent extent and variety of the means which may be necessary to satisfy themÃ¢â¬ (Yoo P7). Hamilton believed that the presidents power to protect the nation as commander in chief should not be limited. Many people and even parts of the government have adopted a slogan meant to ease worries over surveillance. Ã¢â¬Å"If youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got nothing to hide, youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got nothing to fearÃ¢â¬ (Solove P4). The intent of this is that you should not be afraid of the government examining every aspect of your life if you have done nothing wrong in the first place. The arguments present ed to support unlimited government powers of surveillance lend themselves to the end justifying any means. Many believe the best way to fight terrorism is to monitor everything passing through communications channels regardless of the source or destination. Ã¢â¬Å"The best way to find an al Qaeda operative is to look at all email, text and phone traffic between Afghanistan and Pakistan and the U.S. This might involve the filtering of innocent traffic, just as roadblocks and airport screenings doÃ¢â¬ (Yoo P5). In 2008, The United States Senate determined to do just that. The Protect America Act (PAA) expanded upon the FISA Act of 1978 (Federal Intelligence Surveillance Act) to allow more flexibility in monitoring internal communication for intelligence purposes. The Protect America Act substantially changes the intent and protections included in the original FISA Act. Ã¢â¬Å"The FISA Act was originally passed to prevent abuse, not allow for more of itÃ¢â¬ ¦ conclusion that the Protect America Act is intended to reduce the ability of the original FISA legislation to preclude abuseÃ¢â¬ (Alston P35). The PAA allows for monitoring of communications without judicial warrant within the United States. The PAA also allows government agencies to compel telecommunications companies to provide access and information while at the same time protecting them from prosecution for violating privacy laws. Ã¢â¬Å"Failure to obey an order of the FISA Court may be punished as a contempt of courtÃ¢â¬ (Alston P11). Ã¢â¬Å"The Act compels an action and simultaneously removes all responsibility for that actionÃ¢â¬ (Alston P13). The FISA Court is not a judicial court, and meets in secrecy. Communications within the United States can now be monitored at the direction of a secret court without oversight from judicial courts and without recourse from those being monitored. Since the government wanted to inhibit the ability of terrorists to attack using commercial aircraft, the Transportation Safety Administration (TSA) added new airport security measures. The terrorist attacks resulted in many cases of racial and ethnic profiling. The victims of these accusations were mostly of a Middle Eastern descent. These people were subject to searches and interrogations, often without probable cause (ProQuest P1). In order to avoid claims of profiling, airport security checks include whole-body imagers, full pat-downs, and other screening measures for all travelers. Some of these measures violate the right to be secure in our person, while not necessarily improving safety. Ã¢â¬Å"Yet screeners routinely fail to discern the guns, knives, and other contraband their monitors showÃ¢â¬ ¦ the distractions of whole-body imaging are considerably greater than anything in the average carry-onÃ¢â¬ (Akers P3). These new security measures do not inherently make our transportation more secure, and the distractions caused by some may actually make them less secure. In addition, these systems themselves may not be secure or exactly what they are represented to be. Ã¢â¬Å"The TSA has long denied that its gadgets retain the pictures they snap of usÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Ëhave zero storage capabilityÃ¢â¬â¢, so the images cannot be stored transmitted or printedÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Kudwa). Ã¢â¬Å"We know from the website of one of the vendors that these machines can indeed store imagesÃ¢â¬ (Rotenberg). Indeed, images from these systems were subsequently published on the Internet, leading many to question the honesty of the TSA representatives and their vendors. While the government does indeed need to be able to protect the nation, they should do so without violating constitutional rights. Amendment 4 of the Constitution provides that, Ã¢â¬Å"The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, an no warrants issued, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be s eizedÃ¢â¬ (US Constitution, A4). This basic guaranteed right is violated by intelligence monitoring of personal communications of citizens within the United States borders without a warrant. The PATRIOT Act also allows for search and seizure of private records without a judicial warrant under specific rules. Ã¢â¬Å"An FBI agent came to my office and handed me a letter. It demanded that I turn over information about one of my clients and forbade me from telling Ã¢â¬Ëany personÃ¢â¬â¢ that the government had approached meÃ¢â¬ ¦ National security letters are issued by the FBI, not a judge, to obtain informationÃ¢â¬ (Merrill P1-2). Ã¢â¬Å"This information is especially important since internal Justice Department investigations have found widespread violations of NSL rules by the FBIÃ¢â¬ (Merrill P7). This statement reveals that governmental agencies are pursuing private, protected information without obtaining a judicial warrant, hiding their actions behind gag orders with threats of imprisonment, and violatin g PATRIOT Act provisions for National Security Letters. The books Matched and Crossed, by Ally Condie, in many ways mirror what is happening in our country today with the use of surveillance of citizens by government. In the books, all personal communication, spoken or written, is monitored by Officials. These Officials are responsible for monitoring the morals and directing the future of their society. These Officials are similar to the many government agencies using surveillance to monitor the daily lives of citizens for Ã¢â¬Å"counter-terroristÃ¢â¬ purposes. Every facet of daily life is monitored by the Officials and perceived wrongdoing subjects a citizen to social status change and removal from society. In America today, anyone can be searched without probable cause, and to be even suspected as a terrorist or sympathizer can result in imprisonment. In an even greater invasion of privacy, the Officials in the books monitor the very dreams of their citizens. We can only hope medical technology does not grant this capability to our government. Although some people argue that the government should fight terrorism with all methods, the government should not be violating the Bill of Rights. Government agencies, mostly working in secret and immune from warrants and judicial review, have been granted the ability to violate rights of citizens guaranteed by the Constitution in order to ensure our safety. Ã¢â¬Å"Those who would give up Essential Liberty to purchase a little Temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor SafetyÃ¢â¬ (Benjamin Franklin). United States citizens do not need to relinquish our freedom or rights for safety against terrorists. Ã¢â¬Å"Perhaps the best way to ensure that the act remains faithful to fundamental American values is to insist on greater transparency and oversightÃ¢â¬ (Sales P17). The government should work to protect us from terrorists and other threats, but can do so without violating the rights of citizens granted by the Constitution. Works Cited Akers, Becky. Ã¢â¬Å"Whole-Body Imaging: Intrusion Without Security.Ã¢â¬ Freeman Vol. 60, No. 4 May 2010: n. pag. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. . Condie, Ally. Crossed. New York: Dutton Books, 2011. Print. Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â -. Matched. New York: Dutton Books, 2010. Print. Merrill, Nicholas. Ã¢â¬Å"The Patriot ActÃ¢â¬â¢s War on Free Speech.Ã¢â¬ Washington Post 26 Oct. 2011: A. 19. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. ProQuest Staff. Ã¢â¬Å"At Issue: National Security and Privacy.Ã¢â¬ ProQuest LLC. SIRS Issues Researcher, 2011. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. . Sales, Nathan A. Ã¢â¬Å"The Patriot Act IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t Broken.Ã¢â¬ Christian Science Monitor 6 Mar. 2009: n. pag. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. . Solove, Daniel J. Ã¢â¬Å"Why Privasy Metter Even if You Have Ã¢â¬ËNothing to Hide.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ Chronicle of Higher Education 15 May 2011: n. pag. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. Yoo, John. Ã¢â¬Å"Why We Endorsed Warrantless Wiretraps.Ã¢â¬ Wall Street Journal 16 July 2009: A. 13. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. .
Friday, November 8, 2019
Introduction FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychoanalytic theory and PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive development theory are two well known theories in explaining the development of personality. They both can explain where children are in their development of their personality. Although they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t thought of as useful and Ã¢â¬ËtrueÃ¢â¬â¢ theories they are very interesting to see how they apply to children. These theories are outlined below and are shown how they apply to a family with three children. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychoanalytic theory was an approach to describing and explaining the development of personality. In describing the development of personality Freud proposed that that it followed a sequence of five different Ã¢â¬Ëpsychosexual stagesÃ¢â¬â¢, with each stage having crucial emotional events, with the more important ones occurring during childhood. But the main idea in the Ã¢â¬Ëpsychosexual stagesÃ¢â¬â¢ is that the emotional events involved sexual urges. If a failure to complete a crucial event in a particular stage either by too little gratification or too much anxiety then a Ã¢â¬ËfixationÃ¢â¬â¢ results. This fixation causes impairment in personality development causing Ã¢â¬Ëthe individual to retain some of the characteristics of that stage in later lifeÃ¢â¬â¢ (Birch 1997). The Ã¢â¬ËOxford Psychology Study DictionaryÃ¢â¬â¢ describes FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s 5 psychosexual stages as follows: Oral Stage (0 Ã¢â¬â 2 years) The mouth is the focus of pleasurable sensations such as sucking, chewing and biting. The parents are the main sources for gratification for the infant, and the ways in which they meet the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s needs are critical in shaping personality later in life. For example, an Ã¢â¬Ëoral fixationÃ¢â¬â¢ may develop if a nursing mother weans the infant too abruptly. The fixation may reveal itself later in life through activities such as constant nail biting, chewing and cigarette smoking, particularly when anxious. Anal Stage (2 Ã¢â¬â 3 years) The anus is the focus of pl... Free Essays on Freud And Piaget Free Essays on Freud And Piaget Introduction FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychoanalytic theory and PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive development theory are two well known theories in explaining the development of personality. They both can explain where children are in their development of their personality. Although they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t thought of as useful and Ã¢â¬ËtrueÃ¢â¬â¢ theories they are very interesting to see how they apply to children. These theories are outlined below and are shown how they apply to a family with three children. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychoanalytic theory was an approach to describing and explaining the development of personality. In describing the development of personality Freud proposed that that it followed a sequence of five different Ã¢â¬Ëpsychosexual stagesÃ¢â¬â¢, with each stage having crucial emotional events, with the more important ones occurring during childhood. But the main idea in the Ã¢â¬Ëpsychosexual stagesÃ¢â¬â¢ is that the emotional events involved sexual urges. If a failure to complete a crucial event in a particular stage either by too little gratification or too much anxiety then a Ã¢â¬ËfixationÃ¢â¬â¢ results. This fixation causes impairment in personality development causing Ã¢â¬Ëthe individual to retain some of the characteristics of that stage in later lifeÃ¢â¬â¢ (Birch 1997). The Ã¢â¬ËOxford Psychology Study DictionaryÃ¢â¬â¢ describes FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s 5 psychosexual stages as follows: Oral Stage (0 Ã¢â¬â 2 years) The mouth is the focus of pleasurable sensations such as sucking, chewing and biting. The parents are the main sources for gratification for the infant, and the ways in which they meet the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s needs are critical in shaping personality later in life. For example, an Ã¢â¬Ëoral fixationÃ¢â¬â¢ may develop if a nursing mother weans the infant too abruptly. The fixation may reveal itself later in life through activities such as constant nail biting, chewing and cigarette smoking, particularly when anxious. Anal Stage (2 Ã¢â¬â 3 years) The anus is the focus of pl...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Dos and Donts of Giving a Presentation Most college students, at one point or another in their academic career, will be required to give a presentation or speech in a class for a grade. Some may be required to pass a Speech course for their major, but most will surely be required to give a presentation in a number of classes. While it is not a science by any means, giving a presentation or a speech can be a lot of fun. It is a skill an individual will have and develop over the course of their lives, one that will earn them jobs, a good salary Ã¢â¬â because they will be able to master the art of verbal communication. POWERPOINT PRESENTATION Ã Ã Prepare and Visualize a Successful Speech or Presentation It has been noted that some of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest athletes have the same mental habit for when they compete: in their minds, they literally visualize a victory Ã¢â¬â from start to finish. They prepare themselves mentally for what they are about to do. The same principle can be applied to giving a speech, whether in the real world or in the classroom. The speaker, long before they are to give the speech, can visualize having a successful outcome and delivering a fantastic speech. But having great success at something also comes from the work, which is done before this positive visualization approach is to occur. A speech or presentation should first of all be well researched; it should illustrate an argument or theme, and first be written out in the form of an essay. Ã Ã Be Presentable Looking the part is half the battle. When people are bathed and well dressed, when people look their best, they most times will exude confidence Ã¢â¬â which is often the most crucial tool of success when talking in front of a large room. Ã Ã Remember to Breathe and Take a Few Seconds to Gather a Thought Breathing during a speech not only breaks the monotony of a speech, it also relaxes the speaker and helps them concentrate. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more important: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s floor Ã¢â¬â if they want to take a few seconds to gather their thoughts, no one will interrupt them. A few seconds will seem an eternity. But only to the speaker. Take advantage of breathing. Ã Ã Be Confident Ã¢â¬â But Not Arrogant Ã¢â¬â and Smile Often Speaking in front of people is part of life. A student required to give one in college may as well just accept this inevitable fact. With that said, they may as well also embrace the art and skill of giving a good speech and learn how to excel at it. Once again, having a confident, optimistic attitude is half the battle. The other half is a combination of preparation and showing up. And smile. It relaxes the room and the speaker. Ã Ã Make Brief Eye Contact With Audience ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a speech to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s peers. Not a case of a judge. This assignment is an exercise in communication. Learn the seemingly simple yet very complex art of communicating now. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s career will thank them in 10, 20 years from now. Learn now that people are what matters. Individualize people. It makes them feel special, which means they will then listen to the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s speech and become engaged. Ã Ã Be Loud Enough So That the Entire Room Can Hear the Speech DonÃ¢â¬â¢t shout to the audience Ã¢â¬â but donÃ¢â¬â¢t be a mouse, either. Learn to get peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s attention without making them feel physically uncomfortable. Ã Ã Say Ã¢â¬Å"Like,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"UhÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"UmÃ¢â¬ minimally. Pause Instead This is the difference in sounding intelligent and sounding like an ignoramus. Honestly. Start being cognizant of saying this now in college. By the end of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s college career, they may even have rid themselves of these words altogether. Ã Ã Improvise The point of the speech or presentation is being entertaining and engaging to an audience. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be afraid to go off script. Just remember that most assignments have a time limit and students are often judged on making a case for something. But, nonetheless, focus on giving a presentation. Ã Ã Tell An Anecdote or Ask a Question Starting a speech with a question for the audience or with a personal anecdote is often all a speaker needs to grab their audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. Though keeping it is a completely different story and challenge altogether. Ã Ã Avoid Being Dull and Lifeless Whatever topic the student giving the speech or presentation is expounding on, it should generally be one they are interested or even quite passionate about. When they breathe their own excitement into a subject, it will generally feed into the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s curiosity and excitement as well. Ã Apologize for a Mistake Ã¢â¬â DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Apologize for Anything, ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the SpeakerÃ¢â¬â¢s Floor Really, when giving a speech, remember there is no other speaker talking at that time. It is their time to do as they wish; it is their time to be evaluated. They should make the most of it and treat it as their time to fulfill their objective Ã¢â¬â and no one elseÃ¢â¬â¢s. Ã Ã Read ONLY From Notes. Instead of Talking to the Audience DonÃ¢â¬â¢t read just from notes or notecards. Those are just to prompt thought. Get used to going off a single thought and expounding on it naturally. That is the skill of public speaking. Ã Stand Still Move around, be a person. Be interesting. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t put the audience to sleep. Have some energy. Bounce around the room to get their attention. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s all that matters: holding the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. Ã Ã Mumble. Instead, Speak Clearly and Slowly If Needed If the audience has to strain to understand their speaker, they would rather just lose interest and think of something else. When they have no choice but to hear their speaker, because the speaker is eloquent and projects their voice when talking, they will listen and become engaged and most times will find their speakingÃ¢â¬â¢s message quite interesting or insightful or inspiring in some way or another. Ã Be Too Serious This is a speech or presentation assignment in college. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s for a grade. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not a plea to the UN. Have a little perspective and try to enjoy the assignment. Make it fun even. But donÃ¢â¬â¢t make it more serious than it is. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an assignment. Get it done and go on. Ã Touch Hair and Face It is not only distracting, but it tells the audience the speaker is self-conscious and nervous and quite possibly a bore. Ã Lose Focus of the Main Objective: to Pass the Class and Graduate What matters is getting that degree. Whatever it takes to get that degree. Even if speaking in front of others isnÃ¢â¬â¢t oneÃ¢â¬â¢s cup of tea, focusing on the long-term goal of graduation is enough to get through it. Ã Forget to Communicate With Body Language to a Make Point Stronger A voice isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s only tool when talking to a room full of people. Their body language Ã¢â¬â their posture, their arms, their gait, their eye and face gestures Ã¢â¬â can also reinforce a thought or an emotion, in turn really emphasizing something to the audience.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Bottom of the Pyramid - Essay Example By targeting the middle and lower incomes, they can hope to cash in on the phenomenon on the rising imbalance in wealth across the globe. What the article implies is that people who scrape together a living may well be the gold mine that marketers may want to look at. By scraping the bottom, the marketers may well find gold dust that has been neglected for so long.Ã The authors make the point that there are four tiers of the consuming classes. The tier 1 is the most affluent with annual incomes more than $20,000.Ã The next two tiers 2 and 3 have annual incomes in the range of $1,500 to $20,000, while the last tier makes up of those who have incomes less than $1,500 annually.Ã The article makes a strong case for devoting resources to target the tier 4 consumers.Ã The point about social unrest due to the ability of the tier 4 consumers disturbing the lifestyles of other tiers is discussed.Ã Therefore, it is in the interests of all sections to maintain the equitable balance in society to ensure that the tier 4 consumers are not neglected.Ã This is the social point of view.Ã However, as the article states, there are compelling reasons from the profit point of view as well to create a market for tier 4 consumers.Ã The wave of industrialization and globalization has created a category of consumers who are willing to try and experiment with new products but do not have the resources to buy premium products.Ã Thus, there is a need to create and make products that are suitable for this class of consumers.
Friday, November 1, 2019
Sttafing - Essay Example Researches should be done on all departments. Senior management should come up with cross-functional teams that are set to improve the performance of an organization. This piece of work is a close look of staffing issues that cause collapse of companies. The case used is Candle Light Inc., a company that trades in telecommunication, manufacturing and supply. The issues that affect companies are resultant of the leadership (i.e. strong or weak). Weaknesses of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership can be manifested in the reluctance in implementation of issues that arise within the company. Among the most prevalent issues that affect the staff of a company adversely are such like leadership vision and the vision of the company, team work failure, and lack of reinforcement of skills and knowledge, as well as poor communication. Candle Light Company Inc. is threatened by a leadership that has no vision and has no commitment to the vision of the company. The board of directors is acting against a CEO who addresses the issues that threaten the company. In their lack of vision for the company, they manifest a level of lack of transparency for they retain the vice president of human resource and administration who is less productive. They have failed to adjust their plans with the changing world trends. For example, they continue to retain workers that were trained many decades ago who have not refreshed their training. Refreshing would have made them more conversant with current trends of business within the world. The administration has not done any research that would identify the needs of their customers. The leadership has manifested lack of professionalism. They engaged in property damage when they failed to agree on a labor contract. Team work has failed terribly in the staff of Candle Light Inc. Leaders such as the senior Vice president for human resource administration insists on his stand. He
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
The termination theory versus the deprivation account - Essay Example The paper tells that all human beings must die. This is the only thing that we know for a fact. The certainty aside, death still presents many questions to the living that make them curious of what exactly it means to die. Some people believe that death is the end of everything and nothing remains except the memory of a person in the ones he leaves behind. A number of philosophers have focused at length on the philosophy of death and have offered contrasting viewpoints on what their take on death is. The question that many people ask is whether death is evil or not. This is where the contrasting viewpoints arise whether the person believes in some form of immortality or not. One school of thought claims that death is an evil simply because it puts an end to all the good things that we experience in life. The benefits that humans accrue from being alive are activities, desires, perception, thought and all aspects that generally constitute the human life. Despite the misery that fills our lives on occasion, we still have the good times that we treasure and that is the greatest thing about being alive. On a scale, there are many experiences that we go through that are positive and fill us with joy, hope, and all other good emotions we experience. On the contrary, there are experiences in our lives including the death of our loved ones that make our lives worse. For this reason therefore, one would assume that life is a neutral as the good cancel out the bad. However, the good usually outweigh the bad and the result is positive meaning that the experiences of life far outweigh its consequences. The other school of thought is regarded as the termination thesis in which philosophers like Epicurus ascribe to. This school says that as long as we are alive, death is not with us but soon as we die, then we do not exist. The philosophers of this school say that there is nothing to fear in death. PART I The termination thesis is false. This is because it purports that when a person dies, there is no change that occurs except that the person has simply ceased to exist. It also claims that the personÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological or moral importance is not eroded due to death. Another argument that the termination thesis makes is that when a person dies, he does not continue to exist as a corpse. The existence of a person is the cornerstone of the termination thesis and it states that if a person continues to exist as a corpse, the person continues to exist and is contrary to the thesis. To die is bad, not because of death itself, but because life as we know it is a good experience and the loss of it is a deprivation. It is not bad because of any positive elements that it might have but because it removes what we consider desirable. PART II The termination theory in my account is false. This however does not mean that the arguments by Epicurus are easy. In any case, it makes the termination theory even harder while making those of the deprivation theory look harder too. The termination theory does not purport that there is no life after death. In fact, neither does the deprivation theory. In the opinion of Epicurus and other like-minded philosophers who support the termination theory, there are a number of points that need to be considered. When a person dies, he ceases to exist. That is the consensus between the two theories. However, the termination theory goes ahead to say that that occurrence cannot be considered as being an evil and as such, people should not fear death. When a tree dies, there is a remaining stump that is still firmly rooted to the ground albeit lifeless. Therefore, when a person cuts the tree off and counts the annual rings, then one can tell the age of the tree when it died. When one looks into the field, you see what was once a tree. If this is the case for all organisms, then, we all cease to exist at some point but the signs of our existence are still visible. There is a transition that is involved in the dea th of
Monday, October 28, 2019
Social Equality in Childrens Literature Essay Student Name Professor Name Subject 20 June 2012 Social Equality in Childrens Literature To begin with, we should say what social equality is in general. Social equality is a state of social affairs where all the people within the same group or any other formation have the same rights and, what is more important, the same status in certain respects. Some basic differences may divide people in social hierarchy. The main ones are gender, race, or wealth. But why is it so significant especially in children literature? To my mind, the second question is whether there is any social equality in children literature. I think there are a lot of books which show this problem. To traverse this problem weÃ¢â¬â¢ll discuss some children books. And in the books under analysis people suffer from race division. Unfortunately, race is an outdated concept for distinguishing people. Racism has always been the greatest problem for the USA, especially considering African Americans. Equal rights and social value is a matter that needs to be taken extremely seriously. Martin Luther King Jnr, Gandhi, Jesus, Malcolm X, Pope John II, The Dalai Lama, St Francis of Assisi and even John Lennon all believed that social rights and being equal, no matter who you are, is one of the most important things in the world to conquer. Maybe, children books are the first sources of anti-racism and helpers to fight with social inequality. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s think broader to understand this. The first book to discuss is The Watsons Go to Birmingham by C. P. Curtis. It is a historical fiction book. And there is 16th Street Baptist Church bombingÃ in Birmingham. This moment was a critical catalyst of the American civil rights movement. Could we judge a historical book as children one? LetÃ¢â¬â¢s dwell on the details. Because Kenny, the main character, tells the story of his familyÃ¢â¬â¢s trip to the Deep South, the reader gets to experience what is was like to grow up during the height of the civil rights struggle. In the first part Kenny introduces his family, so called Ã¢â¬Å"Weird WatsonsÃ¢â¬ . They live in Flint, Michigan, while Grandma Sands lives in Alabama. Both places are under rather intriguing seasons. The family have to run away to save themselves. That is not the only reason. Kelly is bullied at school. This is both because of his being an excellent student and some civil inequality. But to my mind, children become to bully, as for a civil aspect, only after their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ words or actions. They are too young to judge a person properly. Anyway, the book remains just a story about a family, but some moments, such as the church bombings or the murder of Emmet Till, makes it very powerful. What is more, Birmingham, as the centre of action, also is the centre of civil fights and maybe it could be a symbol of that time. As for national equality, not the whole book, but significant moments in it are the greatest examples of the problem. But to understand everything it is better to read and fell it. The second book under analysis is Monster by W. D. Myers. It is a drama novel. To continue our discussing according to the theme letÃ¢â¬â¢s say about the characters and the problems described in the novel. Steve Harmon is an African American who is on trial for felony murder in New York City. Peer pressure is the main theme which then affected how Steve ended up. As for humanity, Steve is called Ã¢â¬Å"MonsterÃ¢â¬ . He starts thinking over it. This book could be named autobiographical, because Myers was often laughed at at school. And this story is scribbled on the pages of the novel, as the author took his school teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s advice and wrote at night after work just as then Steve did. Although the novel is focused on moral and then social issues, it definitely touches some social problems. Some comment about being black that already may make a person guilty brings up a long-standing social issue about discrimination against African Americans in law enforcement. The question of social equality appears in bullying, and it becomes much greater during the trial. I think Steve is accused as guilty only because of his skin color. Myers was highly prized for his book as the contribution to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literature. The next book to pay attention to is Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry by M. D. Taylor. It was even adopted as TV series what can say the author is a master. Action takes place in Depression time. That time was harder than ever for the whole America. There are two points of view in this book: fortunate Logans and a lot of people both black and white Ã¢â¬â are living as sharecroppers. This makes racially motivated crimes common. The novel shows the necessity in owing the lands. But the main theme, to my mind, is the effect of racism. The first sign of racism appears even at school in the state of books. For white students they are new and for black ones the books are in poor condition. The Logans prove that even being black doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t prevent anybody to become rich. The Wallace family is the most racist and all the sharecroppersÃ¢â¬â¢ families fear them. But as for Cassie, the narrator, and the families, her one owns, the Wallaces donÃ¢â¬â¢t play rather great role. The main life lesson Cassie takes is that material independence may be the key to ethical independence. This type of narration enables Taylor to juxtapose childhood innocence and show wonder of bigotry and racism. And the author, through the childÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, without any polemics or even bitterness, shows the greatest problems of that time with surprise and growing disappointment. Taylor doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make any effort to soften the affect of racism problems and shows the influence events of the 1930s had on the civil rights formation and famous Black Power movements of the 1950s and 1960s. And this enables the reader to understand those feelings the girl had. The novel is highly prized by most critics. Now we go to Malcolm X: A Graphic Biography by Andrew Helfer ; Randy DuBurke. This book is like a philosophical reflection. It shows the thoughts about black pride, Black Nationalism and pan-Africanism. Some critics name this book as the most read and influential book among young people of any racial background. What is more interesting, some chapters were silenced by FBI. Characters in the book mostly associate with other people to meet them and treat them like objects rather than human beings. And this aspect is pointed out in the autobiography to show how hierarchy of social status affects self-esteem. Neither his friends nor his family recognizes Malcolm as a person. The use his skin color as demonstration of their tolerance and broadmindedness. The only wish is to gain the status for them. But Malcolm uses his girlfriend as the same symbol or status and then this action turns to him: Malcolm becomes a symbol of the Nation of IslamÃ¢â¬â¢s vitality. This all makes any person to degrade. Only after passing through so many phases and seeing the race problem from so many different points of view Malcolm is able to settle on a philosophy in which he truly believes. Malcolm is represented in the book in a lot of guises, beginning from Malcolm Little and then Malcolm El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz appears. And through all this changing eyes we see racism problems and MalcolmÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude on them. All problems about equality are surrounded about racism. In this case it is not white people against African Americans but believes in so called Ã¢â¬Å"Black PrideÃ¢â¬ or black power. Malcolm, using people as marionettes, becomes a marionette partially in fateÃ¢â¬â¢s hands and then in the hands of nationalistic organization. Only faith in himself may save Malcolm from losing his soul in the fight for status in Ã¢â¬Å"equalÃ¢â¬ hierarchy. And at last our attention goes to I Know Why The Cage Bird Sings by Maya Angelou. The book is autobiographical. I was written in 1969. The name speaks for itself. Caged in racism and trauma, a person can overcome it with the help of strength and love. Angelou describes such problems as identity, rape, racism and literacy. All this affects her life less or more. It happens so, that Stamps, Arkansas, is so segregated, that the girl canÃ¢â¬â¢t even believe that white people exist. But getting older Maya is confronted by rougher incidents of racism. Children books describe all the events which are no for children at all. BT described from the childÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, they make the reader fell everything by himself with the same curiosity and then growing disappointment. Just skin color makes even her name a great problem. There are also some social events described in the book. Their importance for African Americans is unbelievable. But social realities remain unjust. And all this confine and demean Maya and her relatives. She comes to thoughts that living in racist society and so being under pressure shapes the character, both hers and the members of her family, but she finds some power to surmount them. The book was used for teacher education. As for censors, the prohibited bookÃ¢â¬â¢s usage at school, because of some scenes, e. g. eight-year-old girlÃ¢â¬â¢s raping. To my mind, such books should present in school curriculums to prevent racism development or to teach children how to cooperate with such problems if it happens so. We discussed five different but, at the same time, so equal books.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
When John Quincy Adams was elected to the office of president of the United States in 1824, Ã¢â¬Å"hot headedÃ¢â¬ Jackson was infuriated. He started a campaign that would land him in the Whitehouse in 1828. With his place in office brought profound political change to America, and a direct effect that would last for the next 20 years after his two terms, until 1848. This time in American History is known as the Jacksonian Period, commonly referred to as the era of the Ã¢â¬Å"common Man.Ã¢â¬ It is reform movements and economic development that characterize this era. One of the reasons for the growth of the US economy was Jefferson's Embargo Act, which halted trade with all foreign countries, and forced the country to industrialize, by forcing it to produce goods domestically it would normally import. A classic case of "supply and demand" was seen by this growth of the factory system and industry; as the demand for more factories increased, the labor supply decreased, inciting a need for factory owners to hire more workers. Many of these workers were filled from the immigrant and middle class. Shifting roles in society, young women as well as children worked and lived at factories, during which they were overworked and underpaid. After earning enough to aid add sufficiently to the family income, the women left work at the factory, and back to their roles as housewives and child rearers. Along with Whitney's cotton gin, inventions in society came about. This was a stark contrast to pre Jacksonian rule out of which few inventions came: The decade ending in 1800 saw only 306 patents, while the decade ending in 1860 saw 26,000 patents. Elias Howe and Isaac Singer contributed to the clothing industry with their 1846 invention of the sewing machine. This contributed to northern industrialization, and when combined with the power of steam to produce an automatic sewing machine, it was capable of producing clothing on its own in large quantities with little supervision. John Deere helped to revolutionize farming once more with his invention of the steel plow in 1837. This plow enabled the "virgin soil" of Western lands to be broken, furthering agriculture. It was also light enough to be horse-drawn, which meant it was easily maneuverable. Cyrus McCormick's 1831 horse-drawn grass reaper enabled one man to do the work of five. This caused an abundance of c ash crops to be produced.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Technology Review Create a list of five educational games website: 1. Pbskids. org 2. Starfall. com 3. Ixl. com 4. FunBrain. com 5. abcmouse. com www. Ixl. com- IXL make math practices fun and motivate students through interactive games and practice questions. Widely recognized as the Web's most comprehensive math site, IXL offers a dynamic and enjoyable environment for children to practice math. Students who use IXL are succeeding like never before. With that said, this website allow teachers and parents to create accounts for their students, track their progress, and view a rich assortment of reports showing them just how their students are improving. It also enables students to correct their mistakes and master math concepts easily. With little training, it is very easy to use and manipulate. For a teacher and thirty students to have unlimited access to this educational Web-based technology for the whole year, the school or teacher must pay $199. This technology provides an excellent technical support. It is readily available at any point and time of day; twenty-four seven of the day. Many teachers have testify that this web-based technology help students to be stimulated, engaged, enthusiastic about math and reduces frustration out of math because it gives students the opportunity to practice at his or her own pace and keep them focused. www. FunBrain. com- Teachers can use or customize over 40,000 ready-made quizzes for all ages and grade levels, track student and class progress daily with instant analysis, and assign FunBrain games that build skills and correlate to national testing standards. Teachers can confidently encourage students to use Funbrain in the classroom during their free time, assured that kids will enjoy an educational, safe online learning experience. Funbrain's games help students build on what they have learned in class and acquire new skills in reading, math, and problem solving. Funbrain to delivers an easy, fun and safe experience for even the youngest children. It introduces preschoolers to the Internet and teaches them how to manipulate the mouse and keyboard. Funbrain is free of cost to students but teachers ought to pay $39. 95 membership fee yearly to have full access. This technology is available to teachers twenty four seven but I think students have access to it only at school. This personalized to help students of all ages take control of their learning and make it part of their everyday lives. www. Starfall. com- The Starfall reading program is designed to be fun, exciting, and to instill confidence in young children as they learn to read. This web-based technology provides clear and effective tools to help teachers implement proven teaching methods. The Starfall Website is easy for students to navigate independently, but it is not intended as a surrogate for the teacher. Starfall employs the computer to develop feelings of wonderment and play, not rote assessment. The activities, songs and books complement your classroom by creating an atmosphere of fun and enthusiasm that infuses all aspects of learning. This site is available to teachers and students twenty four seven and itÃ¢â¬â¢s free of charge. Technology Review1 Technology Review Joyce A. Sama EDU225: Instructional Technology January 18, 2012 Professor Tisha Faulkner Ã¢â¬â Grant Technology Review2 Starfall. com is a web based resource technology that can easily be integrated into most k-2 classrooms to enhance studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ language and literacy skills which can increase student learning. Starfall includes alphabet knowledge, cvc readers, emergent readers and seasonal interactive activities. The format is engaging and student-user friendly. Here are two ays Starfall could be integrated into the classroom setting. The teacher could use the projected on the Interactive white board during a whole group review or at the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s computer centers when reviewing literacy skills. To use Starfall technology within the classroom, the teacher would need an internet connection and a computer or two. This is a free resource, all teacher may need is a projector, lap top and interactive white board for whole group activiti es and classroom computers or computer lab for the students to use independently. A teacher must also book mark Starfall by adding it on the computers toolbar. The bookmark has the words Starfall and an image of a star making it super easy to teach students what bookmark to click on to access Starfall. Starfall is making teaching more effective through the combination of educational games, online stories, and songs which is meeting the needs of those who are lacking in many areas with a fun and interesting activities. Technology Review3 There are three ways a teacher could integrate IXL into the classroom. One way is to [pic]take the work out of homework. This is what the teacher will have to do. For homework assignments, she could have the class work on IXL skills from their home. She must pick out skills that correspond to your lesson for the day, and then have the students reinforce their understanding of those skills on IXL. The next day, use IXLÃ¢â¬â¢s reporting suite to make sure that all the students completed their assignments, and to see how well they did! Another strategy she could use is to pair up IXL with the electronic whiteboard. IXL technology is compatible with all electronic whiteboards, so project the site onto your classroom e-board to involve the entire class. The teacher could have the students answer questions in turn, or even make a competition out of it. With this integration the students will be excited to show you the teacher what theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned on IXL. The last way IXL could be integrated into the classroom is by making the most of the class lab time. Since IXL is accessible from anywhere, itÃ¢â¬â¢s the perfect way to make sure the students are learning valuable skills in the computer lab. Give the kids some IXL topics to work on, and be ready to marvel at how much fun they have earning medals and awards for mastering skills. Plus, the lab is one place youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be happy to have real-time progress updates as you are using IXLÃ¢â¬â¢s reporting suite to make sure everyone stays on task. Technology Review4 Here are few ways FunBrain. com could be integrated into classroom. One ways is the teacher setting up a learning center with the Smart Boards. Because Smart Boards are touchable, it gives student the opportunity to touch them with special markers and the screen respond. This versatile tool allows a wide range of teaching and learning option in the classroom. Funbrain. com could be projected on smart board so that the children can play math or language art games from the website. The teacher could use the FunBrain web-based technology to quiz students individually on a classroom desktop computer as a formative or summative assessment. Teachers could also use the FunBrain flashcard game as a review tool for the entire classroom. FunBrain. om also have an online activity called Ã¢â¬Å"Pain by IdiomsÃ¢â¬ that provides examples of idioms which asks students to determine the real meaning of the phrases. Teachers could use this tool as a formative assessment to determine which students have mastered this skill. Another activity I found online that a teacher could integrate into her classroom is the activity called Ã¢â¬Å"Figurative Language Skits. The game is started by a student picking a card from deck of figurative language cards that has been design ed by the teacher, and must act out the word on the card until someone guesses the answer. For example, a student could act out running as fast as lightening or ducking cats and dogs as it rains. This activity appeals to spatial, verbal, interpersonal and kinesthetic learners, targeting different students who learn information in varying ways. Technology Review5 Reference www. Starfall. com/Aboutus Company Information. www. IXL. com http://www. ixl. com/membership/school/integration Facts about Us. www. FunBrain. com How to Integrate IXL into the Classroom. www. edutechlife. com Integrating FunBrain. www. eHow. com