Friday, May 31, 2019

The Role of the Modern Educational Leader Essay -- Educational Leaders

AbstractThe modern educational leader must understand that their design is no longer to run the day to day operations of the school district or school. The role has been transformed to incorporate motivating students and teachers alike as well as creating visions and mission for the direction the leader would like to take with the organization. Leaders challenge and inspire people to go above and beyond their comfortableness zones. They ease up the ability to influence and enlist the support of others towards accomplishing specific goals. To sustain this relationship between themselves and the people they inspire they must eat integrity, loyalty, a confirming attitude, strong communication and planning skills and should not be afraid to empower and serve their followers. Personal ethics must be of utmost importance to educational leaders as they are seen as role models in the community and they must conduct themselves accordingly.IntroductionEducational leaders are expected to be role models to teachers, staff and students alike and should carry themselves with respect and integrity. Leadership is not tantamount to management it is of a higher degree and should be treated with large regard. Anyone can manage, but a good spiritual leader has the tools necessary to engage their employees who in return feel honored to be of service. These leaders have the ability to maintain the respect of those they lead because of their commitment and service to people. Communication is also very important when dealing with parents and the community as a whole. If an educational leader is not getting their message across effective, getting people on board with the vision of the organization would be impossible. Leaders must be mindful t... ...tendent and the principal. These three dimensions are easily recognized as essential aspects of good leadership. (Rebore, 2001 p.113)ConclusionEducational leaders must be trustworthy and have character in order to effecti vely run an organization. Leaders who do not have these traits usually cannot lead effectively and eventually lose their positions or worst, cause the organization to fail. Surrounding every good leader are mentors whose priority is the success of their mentee. Leaders who have strong community affiliations and mentors can sustain many challenges and eventually find their way. These leadership traits are ideal for Educational leaders and should be fostered and encouraged by all. If followed leaders will have the prospect to transform organizations and leave an impact on the lives of countless students, teachers and parents.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Louis Riel: A Summary of Man :: Riel

Riel A Summary of Man   Author J. A. W.               The Canadian hero Louis Riel shows humans that life is fraught with controversies and battle with establishment. Moreover, establishment is the very ruin of Mankind. Riels live was in more ways parallel to the human life cycle than nonpareil would guess. From the birth to the death of the notorious Riel, we can see how little control an individual really has over life.   Louis Riel started out life living in the sticks furthest from civilization, caring parents, who taught him the basics of life, raised him. His early home was simple, uncomplicated, his family farmed and hunted on the side to make a living. Like the hunter/gatherer multitude in prehistoric times, as these people lived mainly of the Wooly Mammoth1, so lived Riels people of the giant buffalo herds, both people imagineing with their very life on these beasts. skillful as the sudden extinction of the Wool y Mammoth complicated things for early mans hunting habits, politics complicated Riels outlook on life. life got swiftly more complicated as Riel grew up. As the country came into the hands of civilized people, its people were forced into a lifestyle which was more complicated than the hunting and hookup lifestyle the Riels and new(prenominal) Metis families were used to. Establishment is the biggest complication in life, Riel fought this all his life, in the end it won. What advances did civilization make in this killing? It benefited them little other than the satisfaction of routing their enemy. Are people satisfied was that the end? That remains to be proven people are still fighting to gain amnesty for Riel.   Life did not stay simple for people, problems started. As people established customs and started to stray from the hunter-gatherer society things got more complicated. Slave labor was one of the prominent drawbacks of people establishing new cultures. People needed slaves to build the huge monuments that they used to show their power and their allegiance to their Gods. The huge prehistoric stone calendar called Stonehenge2 may be the first example of slave work ever built. Canadians built up the West using methods that were essentially the same they actualized it at the cost of the Metis and Natives lives and their livelihood. Riels people, because they learned to depend the staples they could get in trade for hides and pemmican, were slaves of buffalo hunt and fur trade, thus slaves of the whites.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Loss of Innocence in Truman Capotes In Cold Blood Essay -- In Cold Bl

All things truly wicked start from an innocence, states Ernest Hemingway on his pull in of innocence. Innocence, what every youth possesses, is more accurately described as a state of unknowing but not ignorance- which connotation suggests a blissfully arrogant view of the world. Most youth are protected from the harsh realities of the adult world. Therefore they are able to maintain their state of innocence. While innocence normally wanes over time, sometimes innocence can be abruptly taken outside(a). Some of the characters in Truman Capotes In Cold Blood lost their innocence overdue to the traumatic events they experienced in childhood and adulthood while some had none to begin with. Innocence can be stolen but the desire to stop to the innocent state cannot. A traumatic event changes the nature of a small town, yet leaves some residents with a fervent desire to return to normalcy. An marooned city such as Holcomb is thought to be safe from the corruption and crime of city l ife. In 1959, the town of Holcomb was devastated by the brutal overcomeings of a dear family, the Clutters. This event completely changed the attitudes of most of the towns population, which one resident, Mryt Clare, stated had turned them into snakes. While the once blamelessness that had been evident in most of the towns family had disappeared, Clare had hoped the town would stop scaring each other to death. Clare wanted the usual kindness and innocence that drew her to the town to be restored. The deaths of the Clutter family had taken away the towns trust in one another, but the deaths of the killers and re established some of the innocence they had lost. While no one can completely recover from a traumatic event, the town of Holcomb desired to return to a st... ... become the victims. In the case there was never any innocence present in an individual, the choices they discombobulate will shape how corrupt they become. The town of Holcomb was traumatized by the unexpected m urder of a respected family, which turned the community into distrusting gossipers. This event can take frame in childhood, as it did for Perry Smith, who grew up with no protection from corruption by his parents and killed an entire family. Dick Hickock, impulsive and shallow, formulated a plan to rob and kill any witnesses present at the Clutter household. He was corrupt enough to go ahead with the plan and persuade Perry to kill the witnesses. Innocence must be protected to ensure that others may be kept innocent. The virtuous quality that most people have is connected to their innocence, but if their innocence is lost, their future may be condemned to sinfulness.

Karl Marx and Frederick Engels Essay -- Political History Marx Engels

Karl Marx and Frederick Engels Karl Marx and Frederic Engels were two very liberal, politically left, philosophers. This means that they were in party favor of a large government that is comprised of the people, and involved in the lives of these people. One may reflect that this does not sound very different from the influence the United States government has on the lives of its citizens, a large providing government that acts on the will of the people. In both situations the government is aware of the citizens and aims to instill equality into the societies, but this equality is to be obtained by different means and to different extents. Frederick Engels In response to the industrial revolution, which not only made our modes of production better and faster, but also changed a someones individual choices and responsibilities to the government, Karl Marx and Frederic Engels were compelled to write the pronunciamento of the Communist Party.iii Marx and Engels were disturbed by the way the working class was being exploited in this laissez-faire(prenominal) time, and their liberal viewpoints of how a man should be treated were included in this document. One concept that Marx mentions in this Manifesto is the autonomy and responsibility each person has to a government and to what extent these concepts should be practiced in ones own home.iv Although the involvement of the citizen in the government is quite similar to the U.S., this Manifesto puts much more than control in the hands of the people than in the U.S.. In terms of the governments involvement in personal affairs, the Manifesto creates much more political control over the personal lives to try and insure equality when the U.S. allows capitalism to decid... ... Marx, Section I. Bourgeois and Proletariansvi Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776, Section I.vii What are the major(ip) Themes of the humanistic discipline Base?, Humanities Base Re source Page, viii Declaration of Independence, American History Documents, ix Marxism F.A.Q. Youth for International Socialism, x What are the Major Themes of the Humanities Base?, Humanities Base Resource Page, xi Life During the Industrial Revolution, Schools History,

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Ophelia in William Shakespeares Hamlet Essay -- William shakespeare h

Ophelia in William Shakespe atomic number 18s HamletFollow her close, give her good watch, I pray you (IV.5.73). Ostensibly, Shakespeares Hamlet is the riddling, enigmatic, inscrutable theatrical character par excellence. His motives, madness, contrary morals and existential struggles are ambiguous to say the least. When analysing his character, Laertes and Fortinbras are often brought in as examples of less extreme characters dealing with similar but much tangible dilemmas. The idea that there may be some ane who exceeds Hamlet in instability and incomprehensibility is unfathomable. But if one looks at the character of Ophelia, this nonion not only becomes a viable possibility it becomes unignorable. For while Hamlet is constantly struggling to define himself, leaving a trail of cast-off identities, disgustedly flinging one black outfit after another out of his wardrobe as he tries to remain true to himself, his fathers memory, and his stirring unconscious, we only reveal Ophelia in borrowed robes. She is dressed up like a dummy, paraded around, and dismissed. With her final exit, we are left with a handful of ill-fitting stage costumes, none of them designed by her. It is monumental that in the whole play, she is referred to by name nineteen times in total-- the majority of the time, she is Polonius daughter, Laertes sister, or merely she or her. Ophelias prototypal two lines are questions, but not of the To be or not to be variety. Do you doubt that? and No more but so? (I.3.4-9) imply a republic confusion, insecurity, and disorientation-- of blinkered experience, of externally-imposed tunnel vision that leads to a staggering, stilted walk through life. From her first entrance, we are presented with ... ... ultimate act of self-assertion. For not only is she shaming the court and her family, talking in riddles to the brother who preached to her, and acting out to an extreme the lesson constantly reiterated by her father, the inability to live without his guidance. She is not merely distorting the pastoral green girl image, making a gruesome picture of the carefree, virginal Rose of May. She is spitting in the face of the God who placed her in such an impotent position in the first place. And this is the real tragedy of Ophelias life and death. Because while Hamlet dies with the knowledge that he has fulfilled his mission, Ophelia has no mission. Her first independent act, what ought to denote the beginning of a life composed of her own initiatives, is the truncating of that life. Her beginning is her end-- the house pet, released into the wild, withers and dies.

Ophelia in William Shakespeares Hamlet Essay -- William shakespeare h

Ophelia in William Shakespeares HamletFollow her close, give her good watch, I pray you (IV.5.73). Ostensibly, Shakespeares Hamlet is the riddling, enigmatic, inscrutable theatrical character par excellence. His motives, madness, conflicting morals and existential struggles are ambiguous to say the least. When analysing his character, Laertes and Fortinbras are often brought in as examples of less complete characters dealing with similar only more tangible dilemmas. The idea that there may be some ane who exceeds Hamlet in instability and incomprehensibility is unfathomable. But if one looks at the character of Ophelia, this notion not only becomes a viable possibility it becomes unignorable. For while Hamlet is constantly struggling to define himself, leaving a trail of cast-off identities, disgustedly flinging one black outfit after another out of his wardrobe as he tries to remain true to himself, his bring forths memory, and his stirring unconscious, we only see Opheli a in borrowed robes. She is dressed up like a dummy, paraded around, and dismissed. With her final exit, we are left with a handful of ill-fitting wooden leg costumes, none of them designed by her. It is significant that in the whole play, she is referred to by name nineteen times in total-- the majority of the time, she is Polonius daughter, Laertes sister, or merely she or her. Ophelias initiatory two lines are questions, but not of the To be or not to be variety. Do you doubt that? and No more but so? (I.3.4-9) imply a state confusion, insecurity, and disorientation-- of blinkered experience, of externally-imposed tunnel vision that leads to a staggering, stilted walk through life. From her first entrance, we are presented with ... ... ultimate act of self-assertion. For not only is she shaming the court and her family, talking in riddles to the brother who preached to her, and acting out to an extreme the lesson constantly reiterated by her father, the inability to li ve without his guidance. She is not merely distorting the unpolished green girl image, making a gruesome picture of the carefree, virginal Rose of May. She is spitting in the face of the God who placed her in such(prenominal) an impotent position in the first place. And this is the real tragedy of Ophelias life and death. Because while Hamlet dies with the knowledge that he has fulfilled his mission, Ophelia has no mission. Her first independent act, what ought to denote the beginning of a life composed of her own initiatives, is the truncating of that life. Her beginning is her end-- the house pet, released into the wild, withers and dies.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Comparing Atticus to Jake Essay

To Kill a Mockingbird,? and Jake Brigance, the leading homophile of ? A Time to Kill,? argon both brave, determined lawyers. Though they circumstances some similar techniques in the way they defend their clients, overall their methods as lawyers are quite different. In the courtroom, Atticus? qualities are the same as they are in his everyday life. He takes macrocosm a lawyer seriously, and sees it as a calling, rather than a job. He is an experienced lawyer, and uses cross examination to stop that Bob Ewell was left handed, and that Tom Robinson? left arm was unusable ? both crucial pieces of evidence for his case. Jake, on the other(a) hand, is young and inexperienced. Near the beginning of the case, Jake says to Carl Lee, ? Were going to lose this case, Carl lee. There are no more points of law to argue here. I want to get a plea, maybe Buckley will cop us a second degree murder and we can get you just life in prison.? He was given assistance by his mentor, Lucius, and util ize his methods, rather than his own. However, as it came to the end of the film, Jake learned how to successfully defend Carl Lee on his own.He connected with the jury, realising what would help him win the case. ?Can you see her? Her raped, beaten, disoriented body soaked in their urine, soaked in their semen, soaked in her blood, left to die. Can you see her? I want you to picture that little girl. at one time imagine shes white.? Atticus? characteristics remain generally constant throughout the book, but he was swayed a little by his sister? s input. He maintained his dignity, even when Bob Ewell spat in his face, saying, ? So if spitting in my face and threatening me saved Mayella Ewell one extra beating, thats some involvement Ill gladly take.He had to take it out on somebody and Id rather it be me than that houseful of children out there.? This persecution is also an example of Atticus being linked to the theme of prejudice in the story. Jake develops dramatically throughou t the film. Over time he learned to accept help from Ellen Roark, instead of being proud, and showed self control when tempted by her. He tried to create a true friendship with Carl Lee, and learned to find his own witnesses for the case, instead of relying on his mentor. Jake? family are the nearly important thing to him, and were the main reason he took the case. ?When I look at her though, I cannot help but think about Tonya,? he give tongue to of his young daughter he didn? t want the same thing to happen to her. He also didn? t compromise his marriage when given the chance. He speaks of truth and from his heart, questioning the courtroom, ? What is it in us that seeks the truth? Is it our minds or is it our hearts Jake also believed in the death penalty therefore he was probably not a Christian.Atticus, however, was a brave Christian man with moral values. He was polite and humble, and saw everyone as equals. Scout said of her father, ? It was times like these when I thought my father, who hated guns and had never been to any wars, was the bravest man who ever lived.? Atticus shows that he is above the people of Maycomb when he took Tom Robinson? s case, rather than share-out their racist feelings. However, he still respected their choice ? Theyre certainly entitled to think that, and theyre entitled to full respect for their opinions ut to begin with I can live with other folks Ive got to live with myself. The one thing that doesnt abide by majority rule is a persons conscience.? Even when he and his family were deemed as outcasts, he didn? t drop his case. He discouraged his children? s prejudiced attitude towards Boo and the other Radleys, because he chose not to believe the rumours that were spread around Maycomb. Jake opposed the rapists? racist and prejudiced attitude towards Negroes and women. He was not dispirited by the behaviours of the jury and outrage of the court system, or manipulated by the KKK.At the end of the film, Jake breaks throu gh and forms a friendship with Carl Lee when he shows him that he cares by taking his family to Carl Lee? s house for a barbeque. Both Atticus and Jake show great character throughout ? To Kill a Mockingbird? and ? A Time to Kill.? While Jake develops importantly during the film, ? A Time to Kill,? Atticus does not develop much throughout ? To Kill a Mockingbird? however, he was already a humble, courageous man in the beginning of the story. Both men stick up for what they believe in, and are not swayed by the thoughts and opinions of the townspeople where they live.During his ordeal, Atticus shows greater character than Jake did, because he takes the case more seriously and with dignity. He remains calm, even when things are hard for him. Jake, on the other hand, feels the need to send his family away so that he doesn? t have to worry about them. The reason he took the case in the beginning was because for selfish reasons because of his feeling of guilt, and not wanting the same t hing to happen to his young daughter rather than taking the case only out of the kindness of his heart, as Atticus did.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Uses and abuse of drugs

Last year alone, 37,000 people died from medicine related overdoses. Many people do not understand why or how other(a) people become addicted to drugs. Substance abuse is a growing problem that not only affects the person who is abusing alcohol or drugs but in addition affects the lives of those who ar close to the abuser. Substance abuse is the abuse of any substance.A drug is a substance that modifies one or more of the bodys functions when it is consumed. It is ofttimes mistakenly assumed that drug abusers lack moral principles or willpower and that they could stop using drugs simply by choosing to change their behavior. In reality, drug addiction is a disease and quitting takes a lot more than just changing your behavior. Drug Abuse is generally defined as the use of a drug with such frequency that the user has a physical or mental harm or it impairs social abilities. The substances that are discussed in this report are called hallucinogenic drugs those drugs that influen ce or alter the workings of the mind, affect moods, emotions, feelings, and thinking processes.Substances drugs affect the brain, heart, liver, lungs and also the people around you. When drugs fill into the bloodstream they are carried to all split of the body and near reach the brain. In fact, drugs change the brain in manners that foster compulsive drug abuse, quitting is more difficult than it appears. The quicker the drug reaches the brain, the more intense the effects. The quickest way to get a drug into the brain, and also the most dangerous way of using any drug is to injecting into the vena. Injecting into the vein is almost as quick as smoking a drug, followed by sniffing or snorting and then by mouth. Eating or drinking a drug is the slowest route, because the drug has to pass through the stomach first.Drugs are generally categorized into two groups, stimulants and depressants. Stimulants are drugs that speed up signals through the nervous system. They produce alertn ess, arousal and excitability. They also inhibit fatigue and sleep. Everything from over-the-counter pain medication, prescriptions drugs such as, Oxycontin, alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and even coffee can abused in one way or another. The two main substances being abused in our nation are nicotine and alcohol.How does nicotine addiction work? Basically, when you slew your first cigarettes, when you arent addicted yet, you get a head-rush which is caused by the nicotine. In your brain there are nicotine receptors which arent used to the nicotine in a cigarette. Over time, the nicotinereceptors get used to the amount of nicotine so they can cope with the nicotine. So when this nicotine stops being given to the receptors (when you give up smoking) they panic and cause you to feel unhappy and angry. When you smoke, the nicotine receptors send out messages to other parts of the brain which release a drug called dopamine which makes you feel happy, satisfied, relaxed.When you try to quit, or when you fancy a cigarette your dopamine levels are departure down and you start to feel unhappy, aggressive, unsatisfied. Most smokers dont know that they are addicted to nicotine until they try to stop smoking completely they just think that they like smoking. The answer to your question is that you will have a moderate nicotine addiction, and quitting wont be that hard. The signs of a severe nicotine addiction are needing to smoke a cigarette every 2 hours, having one as soon as you wake in the morning (or in even more complete cases, waking up to smoke in the middle of the night).Nicotine increases the levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain, activating the pleasure pathways in the same way other addictive drugs do. after(prenominal) the effects (calmness, sense of well-being) disappear, the smoker craves more. Why is alcohol addictive? Basically because alcohol, like nicotine and heroin and other substances stimulates the reward response in your brain. You h ave a drink, the brain rewards itself with a surge of chemicals and hormones that it really likes, and therefore the more you stimulate it, the more it wants.Some people are more susceptible than others in that their reward responses are stronger which is why some people will get addicted to things more easily than other people will. If you add to that a troubled background of some sort, then when the brain offers its reward response though making that person feels calmer and happier or more in control, they are more likely than someone who is beautiful happy.Alcohol is made of ethanol, it is a depressant, your body becomes addictive to the depressant effects and you eventually need it to stop the shakes (delirium tremors) and the withdrawals of the depressant effects on the brain and body. For example, caffeine is a stimulant, and people become addicted to that and when having caffeine withdrawals one has headaches and other neurological effects. However, alcohol is a lot more dan gerous because if you are a loyal not only can you die from drinking, if you stop cold turkey you can have convulsions and die from withdrawals. The addictive substance isethanol.When you are pregnant, it is important that you play along what you put into your body. Consumption of illegal drugs is not safe for the unborn baby or for the mother. Studies have shown that consumption of illegal drugs during pregnancy can result in miscarriage, low birth weight, premature labor, placental abruption, fetal death, and even maternal death. If its suspected that woman whose pregnant is using drugs they will test the baby to get word if its born addicted, yes it is possible to see if the baby is addicted even before he/she is born.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Most Politically and economically stable country

What expanse do you believe is the most politically and economically stable country to live in and why?Personally, I believe that the most politically and economically stable country to live in the solid ground is Finland. The country is an ideal place to live in as it very few political concerns and few economic problems. Basically, for any country to be politically stable, it first has to learn discipline and adhere to chaste standards.In this regard, Finland has consistently maintained very low levels of decadency. In the country, there are almost no reported corruption cases such as execration of power while in public office, nepotism, bribery, extortion, graft, embezzlement, and cronyism. As a result, based on the Transparency International Corruption Perception Index, the survey which determines the level of corruption all countries in the world, Finland has consistently ranked number one, along with Denmark and New Zealand, among the least corrupt countries in the world.I n other words, people living in Finland take comfort in knowing that all the taxes that they pay are put into good use since there is almost no corruption in the country. In addition, low corruption levels could also mean that the budget allocation for every department is free from kickbacks, which are usually illegally taken by public officials, and abide allow to favorable gains such as road constructions, establishment of infrastructures, and improvement of public transportation, among others.Moreover, considering the low levels of corruption, it is safe to say that the country is lead by officials who feature a genuine concern for the welfare of their people and who place the nations interest above anything else. In addition, these leaders can also serve as good examples other countries around the world.Furthermore, another notable aspect of the country is its relatively powerful economy. Basically Finland is a country that is highly-industrialized and has a free market econo my, which rival that of other European economic powerhouses such as Germany and the United Kingdom. The country is also a key imposter in foreign trade as it also has large manufacturing companies of vehicles, machinery, chemicals, forestry products, and electronics.Moreover, the country has also been cited as the most competitive country from 2003 to 2005 and in 2006 for its research, development, and innovation, particularly on information technology. This is best shown in the success of Nokia, the leading mobile phone company, which has greatly contributed to Finlands economic success. Other companies that are major contributors to the countrys economy include Akey Finnyards, which manufactures the largest cruise ships in the world, and Store Enso, which is the largest manufacturer of paper in the world.However, aside from contributing to Finlands economic growth, these companies in the industry have also generated more jobs for the people living in the country. In addition, the low levels of corruption have also lead to more investors in the country, and as a result, the prices of goods have not dramatically increased. In short, I believe that Finlands stable economy and progressive economy have made it one of the worlds most ideal countries to live in.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Lord of the rings

Favorite book Book of choice Lord of the rings Why one should indicate the Lord of the Rings The Lord of the rings was written in by Mr.. Jar Tolkien between year 1937 and 1949 and is said to be one of the greatest delusion novels ever written. Using a combination of perception depth and beautiful language the novel has become one of the most popular books ever to be published, selling over 150 million copies worldwide.There are many reasons why this particular novel is said to one, if not the best epic fantasy shoot ever written, one of these reasons is the graphical world in which Tolkien has put so much effort and detail. Tolkien manages to create as well as bring the ratifier into an amazing fantasy world so vivid, and detailed that it leaves the reader with a whim of having been there themselves. Tolkien carefully describes landscapes, characters and situations in a way that makes the universe of pose earth seem almost likely to exist.Another great factor to the success o f the Novel could be the many languages. Tolkien manages to create specialized languages which suit the different races of set earth, such as the beautiful eleven language which has several dialects and accents which also different in a varied grade. The eleven language gives depth and conundrum to these ancestral beings, It is tangled yet equally beautiful. Likewise the downcast tongue of mirror or black speech as It Is often referred to sets the proper dark mood and feeling of those whom would dare speak It.Nevertheless the main function these languages carry is the depth it brings to the culture and existence of the races and characters. Few industrial plant of art can be said to match Lord of the rings when It comes to he detailed hi stratum and cultures he describes In The Lord of the Rings, except perhaps by other works by J. R. R Tolkien himself. The history Is both sort of exciting as well as meaningful, with no shortages of surprises and exciting turns along the way. Furthermore there Is piffling Considering this there Is little doubt why this novel has become one of the most legendary novels of all time.The amazingly written novel explains a vivid world filled with history, lore and beauty as well as an Imminent threat. Likewise the beautiful languages, as well as the way the story Is written brings specific dimension and feeling to the Journey of the mall characters. One could also mention the dramatic character developments, as well as orphic messages which come forth throughout the novel, but perhaps It Is best to leave that to possible future readers to formula out by themselves. Hose ancestral beings, it is complex yet equally beautiful. Likewise the dark tongue of mirror or black speech as it is often referred to sets the proper dark mood and feeling of those whom would dare speak it. Nevertheless the main function these characters. Few works of art can be said to match Lord of the rings when it comes to he detailed history and cultur es he describes in The Lord of the Rings, except perhaps by other works by J. R. R Tolkien himself.The history is both quite exciting as Furthermore there is little Considering this there is little doubt why this novel has explains a vivid world filled with history, lore and beauty as well as an imminent threat. Likewise the beautiful languages, as well as the way the story is written brings a specific dimension and feeling to the Journey of the main characters. One could come forth throughout the novel, but perhaps it is best to leave that to possible future readers to figure out by themselves.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Purpose of theory Essay

A theory can be explained as a given set of principles or statements utilize to give an explanation to an occurring phenomenon. Theories explain existing situations and can be used to develop solutions to identified problems within an organization especially when it has been tested for a good turn of times hence acceptable or producing state based results. A theory differs from a model in such a way that a model act as a representation of a given phenomena or the actual concept.A model can in this case be used to explain a given theory. Like a theory a model can be used to make predictions and to fancy a given situation. scientific inquiry involves the use of systematic methods of collecting, analyzing and concluding data and in turn developing new inventions using scientifically gathered study or facts. The process involves the formulation of theories or hypothesis and effective experiments to test the formulated hypothesis.Naive inquiry on the other hand involves an informal c ollection, abstract and interpretation of data and does not necessarily include the application of critically thought ideas and skills. In this case a theory is explained using natural language. Scientific inquiry is likely to produce reliable and results or findings that can be used to find evidence based solutions to an existing problem. It makes use of collected evidence to test given ideas.Evidence based management requires the application of scientific inquiry as it involves the use of meta skills and critically thought approaches in the development of viable solutions (Judd, Kidder& Smith, 1991). Tested theories act as evidence and produce explanations for existing phenomena that can be used to develop new inventions which may act as control measures or solutions Reference Judd, C. , Smith, E. , Kidder, L. (1991). Research Methods in Social Relations, 6th ed. , New York Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers. .

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

The main aim of hazard management should be to reduce the effects of hazards, not manage their cause

Hazard oversight ultimately quarrys to reduce the risk that a judge privy bring to humans. This can be done through the four steps of modifying the cause, event, vulnerability and loss. I believe that the cause of many indispensable threatens, such as geophysical and meteorologic hazards cannot encumbered, thus the circumspection of the cause of a hazard is irrelevant in the management of many hazards. As such, it should be the case that the main aim of hazard management should be to reduce the pictures of hazards rather than manage their cause.The issue of trim back the effect of hazards would be discussed in the four parts of the hazard management framework. I agree with the statement to a large extent that hazard management should not be centered on managing the cause. The few ways in which the cause of the hazard can be modified will be discussed. Although the most ideal method would be to prevent the occurrence of the event in the first place, to stop a hazard from occ urring entirely is a feat that usually would be only be feasible in terms of gloomy scale, isolated phenomena, taking the example of a flood.Floods are examples of small scale hazards that can be prevented through technological means. Often, levees can be built to prevent a river from overf lowing, such as the levees built along the Mississippi River in North America, or the Scheldt River in the Netherlands. Also, occludes can be built to retain piddle in a lake, and can be used to control the water flow, thus preventing rivers from overflowing too quickly. A expert example of a dam that has prevented repeated flooding occurrence is the Hoover Dam along the Colorado River.It is recorded that before the building of the dam, there was frequent flooding at the low lying areas of the river during spring. While physical methods can be employed to prevent the occurrence of these isolated hazards like floods and landslides, large scale hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis and swerve storms cannot be prevented. As such, modification of the cause is highly limited to a few hazards, thus making it to a greater extent feasible to consider other approaches in reducing the effects of the majority of hazards which will almost inevitably occur.While technology cannot be used to prevent the causes of all hazards, technology can withal be used to modify the event. Earthquakes is a good example of a hazard where the earthquake itself does not usually cause the loss of lives, rather, it is usually its effect on other structures that causes the most destruction, such as the toppling of buildings or causing landslides. As such, a good method of earthquake management would be to garb buildings with the ability to withstand the impact of earthquakes, using various architectural designs.A famous example of an earthquake resistant building is Taipei 101, which foundation is reenforce 80 metres deep into the ground and has a steel ball known as a tuned mass damper which balanc es the building. During its construction in 2002, Taipei undergo a 6. 8 magnitude earthquake, and yet the skyscraper did not topple and experienced no structural damages. Sometimes, such as in certain Japanese home base designs, the houses are not built to withstand earthquakes but such that it moves along with the earthquake, using grooves rather than nails to fit the house together.Furthermore, the light wood has lower fortune of killing people if it topples. These different designs show how it is likely to use knowledge of engineering and architecture to reduce the impact of hazards. Modifying vulnerability is another approach to hazard management which aims to increase zeal of people themselves to tackle the hazard when it occur, including methods such as increasing community preparedness, planning, developing warning systems, and changing perceptions.Community preparedness is essential in all communities where hazard occurrence is frequent, to train and educate people as t o how to respond to a hazard and drawing out reasoning by elimination plans, and stocking up emergency supplies of food, water and medicine. Also, people can be trained in first aid, search and rescue, and firefighting, etc. In some cases, this is much more feasible than using technology, when the cost is too high. A case study of Norway, where avalanches are frequent, is a good example.Due to the fact that neither relocation nor retrofitting buildings was a feasible option, the most cost effective plan would be to decrease vulnerability. This was done mainly through setting up a warning system, and overture up with a plan to organize an elimination, by appointing a group of representatives from each community and training the people on how to react. The plan was highly successful, covering the merit in proper planning and preparedness.In many ways the perception and awareness of the community to hazards is very important. Changing the perception of people is too essential in r educing the impacts of hazards, for negative perception by a group of people can ultimately data track many deaths, in cases where communities, peculiarly in LEDCs, are resigned to the fact that no amour can be done to prevent hazard occurrence and that hazards are unavoidable and look upon them as a way of life. Even in MEDCs, perceptions can cause problems.There is a case where, during the evacuation for Hurricane Katrina, some of the elderly did not want evacuate, because of fear of newfound living conditions, or that they do not want to leave their home. This contributed to the majority of the deaths being the elderly in these events. Thus, changing the perceptions of various peoples in different heathen contexts plays a large role in hazard management, ensuring that the community would want to pen themselves in the first place. In all, modifying vulnerability can ultimately lead to people knowing how to react to hazards and thus reduces the negative effects of them.In many cases, managing the cause of natural hazards whitethorn bring certain disadvantages, for most natural hazards, while posing a threat to humans, are actually only natural phenomenon, and at times have benefits to us and the environment. A very good example is the case of a flood, where people have tried to create physical barriers to contain the flood water such as levees and dams. While this may be applicable to MEDCs, for many agricultural communities, such an approach is inapplicable, for they depend on the floodplain where there is a high amount of nutrients, deposited by flooding, and supplying of water.In these contexts, such as in Bangladesh, where the people depend on these floods, the prevention of the hazard would uproot their way of life. In this way, floods need not forever be treated as negative phenomena, causing damage in only certain contexts. In my opinion, modifying the vulnerability, not the cause should be the main aim of hazard management. This holds since th ere are two factors contributing to risk hazard and vulnerability. Since eliminating the hazard is totally unfeasible in many large-scale hazards, the best thing to manage should be human vulnerability.Since the main aim should be centered on that can be applicable to all communities, it should be something feasible in contexts where there is lack of economic and technological resources, thus ruling out modifying the event as a potential main aim. As such, hazard management should not be centered on technology, such as the retrofitting of buildings, but rather something like education, which is more cost effective. In all, the main aim should be to increase the resilience of the people themselves to tackle the hazard.For example, in the case of Bangladesh, people adapt to the floods and learn to use it to their own benefit, neither seeing it as a negative phenomenon, nor something they should fear. After changing any negative perceptions of hazards in communities, community prepared ness is essential. A bottom up approach equips people with the ability to save their own lives rather than being dependant on others. In fact, it has been shown that this approach works much better than international aid or rescuers from the military.For example, the rescue efforts to the floods in Mozambique in 2001 was a success, not because of anything else, but more of the fact that the people were trained in how to respond, and that there was a clearly drawn out evacuation plan and appointed leaders in the community. Mozambique, though being one of the poorest countries in the world, has managed to increase community preparedness, thus showing how this approach to hazard management, may just be the most universal method of tackling hazards, which works regardless of affluence.In conclusion, it is true that hazard management should be primarily about reacting to the hazards and reducing the damage it brings, rather than trying to prevent it. Still, as technology continues to dev elop, we cannot eliminate it as an essential part of hazard management, for what may not be possible to prevent now, may be in the future. So, both sides of the equation must be considered to tackle risk effectively, depending on the context.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Transport Across The Fermentation Tank Engineering Essay

Agitators in fermenter play a major function in portmanteau word the medium. Agitation in fermenters improves heat and mass conveyance across the turmoil armored flake vehicle. Mechanically moved fermenters argon well-suited for usage with rob-sensitive excitements that require good O battery-acid and majority alloy than the conventional air rescind fermenters.Fermenter, in biotechnology is usually explained as a container where the host cells incorporating the recombinant Deoxyribonucleic acid be grown. In frank footings fermenter is an setup which maintains optimum conditions for the growing of micro-organisms which argon used in heavy(p) case agitation in the output of enzymes and other chemicals. Basically the fermenter consists of a agitator either bottom subscriben or top driven. The most normally used is the fermenter with a top-drive assembly because of its easiness of mathematical operation, orderly design, dependability, and hardiness.Agitators in fermenter p lay a major function in blending the medium which is invariably aerated which means supplying efficient mass exchange in footings of fumble item and liquid stage ( blending ) by providing bread and butter and taking away the metabolites. Mass transportation is enhanced by agitation from the headspace to the majority of the liquid it creates slight(prenominal) anaerobiotic environment ( microaerophilic ) for agitation, farther decelerating down the agitation truncate and upseting the ecological equilibrium.The chief intent of agitation usually are intermixing of two mix sufficient to(p) liquids, unthaw outing solids in liquids, scattering a gas in a liquid as all right bubbles, suspending of all right solid atoms in a liquid and to increase heat transportation between the fluid and a spiral or jacket in the vas wall. Agitators must able to make self-cleaning and must forestall monolithic subsiding.Agitation provides practical benefits uniquely in agitation vass with hapless heat-transfer characteristics. It improves heat and mass conveyance across the agitation armored combat vehicle. By bettering those agitation brook cut down temperature heterogeneousness and destroy concentration gradients during agitation, supplying a more unvarying microenvironment for microbial growing. This has positive economic and merchandise quality-related benefits like cut downing the agitation clip, and better standardising process public presentation and merchandise properties.Most of the chemical and impact industries depend on effectual agitation and commixture of fluids for most operations. Generally agitation refers to coercing fluid by machinelike agencies to flux in a peculiar form like circulatory or other pattern inside a vas. Blending normally involves scattering two or more dissociate stages such as a fluid and a solid or two fluids with peerless another.Agitation besides has disadvantages peculiarly in industrial agitation performances. Agitation may in terfere with the gel-formation procedure, a cardinal quality property in house yoghurt ( Kristo et al. , 2003 Lee and Lucey, 2004 ) and agitation during agitation would suppress the lactic acid formation involved in the procedure ( Driessen, 1998 Early, 2000 ) , accordingly widening the agitation clip and perchance changing the quality, there is a possibility of it favoring the internalisation of air into the system, interfering with the agitation kineticss, an anaerobiotic event.Agitators have different move and all the traveling parts can be made unapproachable by enveloping down the stairsneath the vas, therefore doing it a safer piece of setup. There are different sorts of agitators with or without motor driven. With the motor belt goaded fomenter both spillage can be avoided by straight falling onto the motor since it is non sited straight below the fomenter shaft. Double automatonlike seal in the fomenter is necessary to guarantee that the medium does non leak out at t he shaft lodging. Depending upon blending demands the agitation shaft will be provided with two or leash impellers, each with four or six blades. It is of import that the exterior coating of the fomenter should fit that specified for the vas. Bigger impeller diameters result in footlinger blend clip and lower extremum shear. Though it has benefits it is besides necessary to see the higher cost, increased quiver and larger run-out and more robust design demands associated with larger diameter impellers and greater fluid forces. Orientation and size of fomenters varies with fermenters.Scale-Up In production conditions, either the fomenter revolutions per minute is varied or the impeller is changed to obtain similar blending clip. These impellers can run at much higher tip velocities since they convert a bigger fraction of their office input into unstable pumping instead than shear.There are two chief occupations of fomenters in a cell civilization. First is to obtain the coveted O and C dioxide mass transportation by bring forthing adequate shears which can be characterized by gas mass transportation effectivity and the 2nd is to maintain the vessel well-blended to minimise fluctuations in temperature, pH and unidimensional concentration. The cells inside should be exposed to higher mechanical force or thermic force and or emphasis. The peak shear rate must be kept low plenty to avoid cell harm or emphasis. Bigger the mass transportations is better, because cut downing the fraction of O in the dissipate gas or flow of sprinkle gas lowers the operating cost and reduces cell harm in certain cell lines. Deluging occurs if the fomenter turns excessively well-fixed for the gas rate and if the gas burden exceeds the implosion therapy point consequences in lower mass transportation. Doppler velocimetry is used to mensurate the shear produced by an fomenter utilizing a ocular maser beam to scan the instantaneous speed at points throughout the vas.The fomenter is preferred to be top mounted which makes it easy to leave it during go oning operation and to avoid voidance of fermenter during care work on the fomenter. rise type and automatically stirred/ agitated fermenters are widely used in bioprocessing. telephone linelift fermenters are utile where there is necessity of soft agitation and low cost O transportation and in comparatively less syrupy fluids turn the mechanical fomenter is whole caboodle more expeditiously for higher-viscosity fluids. Normally used fermenter which utilizes mechanical agitation rules chiefly uses radial flow impellers during the agitation procedure.Top-mounted fomenters are earthy in low-pitcheder vass where they are easier to seal, but do require longer shafts and larger diameter to command run-out and quiver while in big scale production underside mounted fomenters are by and large used where they need shorter shafts of 3m or less. The latter type is easy to manage since the shaft are of smaller diameter and they are cost effectual. It is easy to take the mechanical seal. Agitator must be mounted either on an angle or offset from the vas Centre line when the vas does non hold baffles. Baffled vass with centre top-mounted fomenters are more common.General chromium steel steel fomenter with high opposition to corrosionA mechanical fomenter is driven by an explosion-proof motor ( electric motor ) , it has a shaft and cogwheel mate to a cogwheel box that drives the impeller shaft and may even hold immersed bearings if the shaft is really long. The impellers ( turbines ) transform mechanical power into unstable circulation or agitation. The nominate of the properly designed mechanical agitation system are unvarying suspension of solids, appropriate application of shear, homogeneous fluid belongingss throughout the system and economic application of applied power. The rotating parts in a mechanical fomenter are capable to change by reversaling emphasiss that may ensue in metal wearine ss, failure of shafts, seals and fomenter blades particularly when the environment is temperature specific.Experimental setup that consists of jacketed 50 milliliter reactor ( Parr, theoretical account 4843 ) with mechanical agitation.Fermenter with Mechanical Agitation ( book of account=sci_arttext )During the commixture procedure, the mechanical fomenter plants by turning the mechanical power into thermic nothing where the energy ( temperature ) is introduced non-uniformly into the volume. This produces harmful effects to the life beings and agitations in the procedures, which know merely in moderate temperature scope. The commixture can be improved by increasing rates of aeration and mechanical agitation. However, the influence of aeration rate on blending clip was most outstanding merely under conditions of small or no mechanical agitation. The independent agitation reduces the demand for long flow carry besides maintains efficient blending irrespe ctive of merchandise throughput or viscousness.The fermenter design becomes more complex when mechanical agitation is applied for blending nevertheless it offers coarse advantages in footings of versatility and public presentation. Strong axial commixture is one of the less desirable characteristics of mechanical fomenter.There are nearly major disadvantages in utilizing mechanical fomenters such as unsystematic commixture, where it shear fluid and impel it around the commixture vas. High-turbulent and dead zones are formed during blending which consequence in un-uniform nutrition supply to cells, due to mechanical force produced by sociable s beater the microbic cells may decease. Overheating is formed on the terminals of sociable s beater countries ( micro zones ) which are besides destructive for cells.Mechanical fomenter has merely a motor it may hold a provender pump, nevertheless. Mechanical fomenters can non be made on plastic if necessary. Top-entering mechanical fomenter s typically require a befuddled armored combat vehicle and it can non blend the armored combat vehicle when it s less full. More dead musca volitanss are formed whilst utilizing a mechanical fomenter. Mechanical fomenter typically needs one impeller diameter of clearance near the armored combat vehicle to supply energy during solid suspension.A mechanical fomenter by and large uses less energy for liquid blending in armored combat vehicles smaller than 3 thousand Defense Intelligence Agency, but during solids suspension, liquid blending and gas/liquid contacting in large-volume ( over 1,000 gal ) fermenters with mechanical agitation costs higher.The additive liquid speed in the downcomer increased with the increasing velocity of the fomenter but was non sensitive to the aeration rate, except in the airlift manner of operation ( N=0 revolutions per minute ) . The fact that the liquid speed varied small with aeration rate in automatically agitated operation whereas at a changeless agi tation speed the commixture clip declined with increasing rate of aeration suggests that under given conditions of mechanical commixture, the gas bubbles lifting through the fluid were an of import cause of blending. Bubbling frequence additions with increasing aeration rate and the bubbles lifting relation to the liquid carry in their aftermaths a certain sum of fluid. As celebrated earlier, the consequence of mechanical agitation on blending clip was pronounced merely at comparatively low aeration rates. At higher aeration speeds ( UGr?0.04 ms?1 ) , lifting bubbles seemed to the dominant cause of the commixtureDepending on the strength of the mechanical agitation, air sparging of the riser zone may or may non better the commixture public presentation. At sufficiently high aeration rates ( UGr?0.04 ms?1 ) , the usage of mechanical agitation during commixture has lesser importance.Air lift agitation utilizes compressed air to continuously recycle slurry. Consisting of simple piping, air lift agitation requires no traveling parts and negligible care. The consequence is homogenous slurry. Mechanical impeller will shear certain cells that are less delicate. For the ground the mechanical fomenter, which causes unwanted emphasis and perturbation is take from the medium. About 70 % of consumed power is used for get the better ofing the defying force ( in a medium ) with mechanical fomenters. In this connexion mechanical power is automatically turned into thermic energy and therefore consequences in excess harmful warming of the civilization. Therefore this excess warming must be removed from the fermenters.In Airlift Fermenters the civilizations are both aerated and agitated by air bubbles introduced at the underside of vass. The vas has an inner standard of exchange thermionic vacuum tube through which the air bubbles and the aerated medium rise since aerated medium is lighter than not aerated one which consequences in commixture of the civilization all(prenom inal) bit good as aeration.The air bubbles lift to the top of the medium and the air passes out through an mercantile establishment. The cells and the medium that lift out of the bill of exchange tubing move down outside the tubing and are recirculated. O2 supply is rather efficient but scaling up nowadayss certain jobs. These sorts of fermenters are now used for production of monoclonal antibodies. The contents are pneumatically agitated by a watercourse of air and or sometimes by gas. In add-on to agitation, this watercourse besides has the of import map of interceding exchange between the gas stage and the medium O is normally transferred to the liquid, and in some instances metabolic merchandises are removed through exchange with the gas stage.Air lift fermenters eliminate the possible grinding jobs encountered in agitated fermenters. Due to take down shear force the extents of cell desorption from atom shows would be less as compared to agitated systems while utilizing solid substrates. Air lift fermenters are energy efficient and easy to run, and require merely tight air for aeration and agitation and extinguish the demand of mechanical agitation. Oxygen transportation efficiency is higher than mechanical agitated fermenter.Lab or pilot workss can non easy air trial because it requires long bubble opposition clip with minimal wall retarding force. The short vass where mechanical agitation is required for good agitation public presentation compared to air agitated fermenters. If the vas has chilling spirals the commixture is good from top to bottom. Air agitated fermenters exist in industry today for a broad scope of merchandises.Air-lift stirred without mechanical sealThe chief advantages in utilizing air lift fermenters are improved asepsis because of no top or bottom come ining agitation shaft, building of really big fermenter is possible because the design is non limited by motor size, shaft length and its weight, infrigidation demands are reduced 2 0 to 35 % because of no mechanical agitation, cheaper fermenter design. No care of motors, gear boxes, bearings or seals. The air agitated fermenter is a feasible blending power unit like a variable velocity thrust with no motor and drive noise. Air compressors can be steam driven to cut down power cost and go on to run during power outages in big workss with minimum power coevals for controls.Air-lift fermenter exhibit lower rates of O mass transportation and commixture compared to agitated bioreactors and therefore their usage for industrial production of enzymes could ensue in O lack of the agitation broth and unequal majority commixture. On the other manus, compared to other fermenters, air-lift fermenters have a simpler design, have a lower capital and operating costs and exhibit a lower shear environment. For the latter ground, air-lift fermenters have been used successfully in agitation of shear sensitive micro-organism in high viscousness.The chief disadvantages are because of weak blending they do non ever suit for civilizations with active critical maps. They do nt hold intensive nutrition supply and do nt take away the metabolites intensively. Sudden alteration of force per unit area will do the air bubbles drifting to the surface and in bend devastate sensitive cells. It besides produces abundant foaming. The application of chemical froth ledgeman makes quality of concluding merchandise worse and the procedure more expensive. These disadvantages are connected with hurt of cells and micro-organisms during the procedure of the medium commixture, deficient strength of mass exchange, formation of high-turbulent and dead zones, high power ingestion, low features when they works with syrupy fluids.This is a table demoing the chief advantages and disadvantages of air lift and mechanical fomenters in fermentersMechanicalAir lift

Monday, May 20, 2019

Democratic Society Essay

The conducted determine revealed that both external and internal factors are of great importance for facilitation democratic changes in developing countries. Some observers argue that democratic outcomes are besottedly related to the extent to which power holders have been encouraged by pressure from various external and internal sources for example, world(prenominal)ly, from foreign governments granting financial aid and, at home, from civil and political society to allow citizens greater employment in the political arena.Others suggest that democratic progress is primarily associated with an array of domestic factors affecting political outcomes, including level of scotch development, quality of political leadership and political culture. It seems that truth, as usual, lies somewhere in between. Without a doubt, globalization of democratisation encourages developing countries to keep up to date and join the appendage of internationalization of stinting growth and get pro fit from widening of free markets, reinforced by new means of international communication.But our study proves that to promote democratization the developing nation has to maintain multiple domestic conditions much(prenominal) as adherence to sustainable economic development and willingness to allocate public resources in equitable manner, strong middle class, powerful and soundly structured civil society, effectively functioning multi-party system, and liberal political culture. Thus, economic development proved to be the most important predictor of democratization.It seems that, once a inelegant achieves a certain degree of economic development, additional economic growth is an important ingredient for the developing countrys continued progress toward further democratization. Our study demonstrated that continued democratization of developing countries depends intemperately on their economic liberalization, supported by the increased purchasing power of the people.The empirical findings cited in our study clearly showed that the unique Confucian or Islamic political culture/civilization does not continue the internationalization of national economies from affecting the degree of democracy. It seems, therefore, that states may be able to delay, but not negate, the process of political liberalization induced by economic liberalization. As the economic opportunities increase for individuals and private businesses, their consciousness of the potential for improving their civil liberties also increases.Subsequently, they will begin to demand more freedom. It seems, therefore, that the improvement of the archetype of living and the popular involvement in the economic and political decision-making are critical for long-term democratization in developing countries.ReferencesArblaster, A. (1999). Democratic Society and Its Enemies. In P. Burnell & P. Calvert, (Eds. ), The Resilience of Democracy Persistent Practice, Durable Idea, supernumerary issue of Democrat ization, 6(1), 33-49.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Theories of development are important Essay

A theorist is a person who bring ons or believes an idea in which to explain something, including what, how and wherefore. Theories argon culture done observations, analy utter and experiments. Theories of knowledge ar important because they answer us to understand churlrens behaviour, to help us understand the sequence that churlren and young people develop. Theorists- influencing current practice.Cognitive development.A Swiss livelihood scientist and psychologist jean pi durationt (1896-1980) is renowned for constructing a highly influential model of minor development and victimizeing. He suggested that fryren develop cognitive skills through mental maps, schemes and network concepts for understanding and responding to physical experiences within his or hers environment. Piagets theory identifies tetrad developments stages these four stages ar, sensorimotor stage 0-2 years, preoperational stage 2-7 years, concrete operations 7-11 years, formal operations 11-15 years. Educators must political platform activities that are developmentally appropriate according to the curriculum which expands the students logical and conceptual growth. some other theorist that gives cognitive development is Vygotsky. He believes that pip-squeakren learn and understand through others around them, such as fri curiositys and family. He believed that children need challenges and teaching experiences set for them to help them develop in all areas and to help them to procure their full potential.Psychoanalytical development.Sigmund freud (1856-1939) another theorist believed that there are 3 move to each child and young persons personality. He believed that there are the ID, the ego and the super ego. He believed that these 3 parts arent almodal values there from when the child is born exactly develop with the child as they grow. He said that they are unalike through certain factors and behaviour between each diverse child,Humanist.Abraham maslow (1908-1970) look ed at peoples motivation in the 1940s. He believed that people needed to abide their fundamental needs forrader they could meet their potential or self-actualisation. He believed that if they were not met then they would become a deficiency in the person. This links to practice because we need to meet the needs of the children for, warmth, care, hunger and environment that they are providing and what they do to meet the childrens needs.Social tuition.Social learning theorists believe that we learn through observing others. Albert bandura born 1925 believes that we learn through imitation. Eric Erikson (1902-1994) believed that a child and a young persons personality forget change throughout their life, due to social development and experiences. This links to practice as greenhouse practiti superstarrs are told to be good role models to the children. This is because they observe us and copy or imitate actions that we whitethorn make.operant conditioning.The theory of operant co nditioning is based on learning from the consequences or reinforcement due to a type of behaviour. B.F skinner (1904-1990) is recognised as a key figure for developing the behaviourist approach path to learning and developing the theory for operant conditioning. He believed that we learn through our experiences in the environment and the consequences to our behaviour. mule skinner separated the sequence of actions into three groups 1 positive reinforces2 prejudicious reinforces3 punishers.The positive reinforcers are what make us repeat actions or behaviour when we get something we desire. Skinner suggested that the positive reinforcement was the roughly yieldive way of encouraging new learning, such as getting attention from adults, receiving praise and receiving rewards. The negative reinforcers is a behaviour that similarly makes us repeat actions or behaviour, but not in a bad way but in a way to impede something bad happening from something good. For warning children whi tethorn learn to hold onto the stair rail when walk of life down the stairs to steady them self rather than hearting the need to sit on their bottom and bump down them. The punisher is what is going to stop people from repeating behaviour, such as checking the temperature of the bath water before getting in it, later burning yourself because you didnt check.Skinner also researched un judge positive reinforcers. This is when children generate negative behaviour to fill attention from adults. He proved that screening more frequent positive reinforcement was the most boom way to help children learn about accept adapted behaviour. This links to practice because we reward and praise children for showing positive behaviour. Nursery practitioners often say well done to children as a way of assess them for showing positive behaviour than their negative behaviour. We also try to focus more on childrens positive behaviour rather than their negative behaviour, this is because they even tually learn that their good behaviour is more spy and praised than their bad behaviour. This proves skinners theory.Behaviourist. The behaviourist theories suggest that learning is influenced by rewards, punishments and environmental factors. conditioning is often used by behaviourists because we learn in a certain way due to past experiences that teach us not to do something or to do something. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) was a physiologist who was studying dogs. Whilst doing this he recognised that the dogs started to salivate before their fare had been put down for them. He came to the conclusion that they were doing this because they learnt to fellow traveller the arrival of the food with other things such as, the salubrious of footsteps and the bowls or buckets. He did and experiment to look at this more closely. He used a bell because dogs do not salivate when hearing a bell. The dogs eventually begun to associate the bell with been fed.He then rang the bell constantly and ev entually the dogs begin to stop salivating and finally did not react to the unspoiled of the bell. Behaviourists use the term extinction when this happens. John b.watson (1878-1958 Took up pavlovs work and demonstrated that children and adults stinkpot be Hellenicly conditioned. In an experiment he created a phobia of rats in a little boy know as little Albert.In our practice we do not experiment or use classical conditioning, although we may recognise it among the children for example, children may become excited when they see bowls or a tray been brought into the room, they may associate this with food being effrontery to them after this happens. Another example would be that at the end of the day all the children put their coats on they then may anticipate home time because they associate putting their coats on with their parents arriving to take them home. It is also effective to remember that classical conditioning bathroom contact to childrens phobias. Social pedagogy.S ocial pedagogy is the holistic and thoughtful way of working. The aim of this is to improve the life chances and social outcomes of babies and children, therefore we must work with each other as well as the children to limit the best possible way of improving these outcomes. The theories of development that have been shown help childcare workers put unitedly framework and education for the children. It also helps us to understand why babies, children and young people do things the way they do. Conclusion.This shows that theorists have helped us come to conclusions for why we do things the way we do as well as how we learn through our experiences. It also helps to understand these theories so that we shadower provide better care and association in the childcare setting.Task c. introduction pack for a new staff member. At the go goose pre-school we monitor each childs development we do this by using the learning journey. In the childrens learning journey we have primaeval learni ng goals for each specific age group, to march on us guidelines or the norm development for each stage of their time at the setting. We also carry out observations on the children to show which stage they are at, at the time on the earlier learning goals.Before any observations take place on the children, per get awayion must be given from the parent/carer, this is also helpful as we can share findings with the childs parent/carer and they can share findings with ourselves. If we were to do observations on a child without consent from their parent/carer then they may feel angry and upset as they may not understand that this is normal practice and help us to help the children. Assessment methods.Here are two examples of assessment methods we use to monitor a childs development checklist/tick chart and a free description with a snap opaline prospect. A checklist and tick chart observation is a chart with particular activities written on and the child is observed to see if they can reach the milestones set according to the childs age. These observations are unremarkably taken place when structured activities are set up for the children to do and are based oer a longer period of time, but are taken place less frequently to show the progress in the childrens development. The advantage of using this observation is that you can observe more than one child at a time and they are quick and easy to use.The disadvantage of this is that observing at different times may produce different results and that it only shows what the child can and cannot do, not how overconfident and happy they are to attempt tasks and join in. A free description with a snap dead reckoning picture is to show skills that children show or are seen doing. A description of what you see is written into a small observation sheet and put the childs learning journey next to the picture of them doing so. These observations are used frequently to show what milestones the child is at for their age gr oup. The observation has the advantage of been able to use it frequently and no preparation is needed. Although the advantage is that different observers pick up on different things that children do and it can be hard sometimes to find the right words to use to outline what you are seeing. Examples of why sometimes child/young persons development does not comprise the evaluate pattern.Children develop at different stages for example, a baby of 12 months may be walking with support but a baby of 10 months may be walking unaided. Some children well(p) happen to develop quicker or slower than others, but for some babies and children there are reasons why their development does not follow the expected patterns. Premature birth can have an effect on development, such as sitting up unaided, crawling, standing and walking. Learning difficulties can also have an mend on development, some children may pick up writing and study easier than with a learning impediment, but help is availa ble such as special support and multi-agency approaches. Another reason why development may be delayed could be disability for example, a baby that has a disability with their legs may not be able to walk until they are 2 or 3 where as the expected age is roughly 1 years old.Impact by disability.Disability can impact and effect development as it can prevent children and young people from completing tasks. Although most activities can be adapted to suit children and young peoples needs. Intervention.Intervention can be done to win positive outcomes for the child or young person where development is not following the expected pattern. specialiser support can be used in the preschool to support children with learning difficulties or disabilities. They can range confluxs to come and see the child to observe them and give the childs key worker activities and goals for the child to meet. Multi agency approaches can also take place to help babies, children and young people to meet the e xpected pattern of development. Another intervention could be supported play by adapting the activities to support the child or young person to reach the milestones for their age group. Task d .Early identification.Early identification of speech, lecture or communication delay is important for a childs well-being because it can affect their development. The sooner it is picked up on the sooner it can be amended therefore the child will not miss out on educational activities and lessons which would otherwise potentially hold them further back. Potential risks.Any delays in a childs speech, language and communication could result in a lack of development in the future. They may not be able to develop their skills further for example, if a child cannot sing then communication will also become a problem. This is why it is important to identify these delays advance(prenominal). If a child cannot speak then their development will slow down as they cannot further their skills through ot hers around them. This can therefore cause the problem to become greater if it is left to long. Importance of primal identification and potential risks of late recognition.It is very important that early identification to speech, language and communication as it can affect children and young peoples further development and expanding skills. If it is picked up on early enough then help can be given to the child to either overcome the swerve or to give extra support to them to help them develop further. If it isnt picked up on early enough then the childcould fall behind in development and education. When a child locomote behind it can sometimes be difficult for them to catch up although there are organisations to give extra support to the child. Multi-agency team.There are many organisations that can help support a child or young persons speech, language and communication. The childs GP (general practitioner) can indicate the child to a speech therapist which will help their spee ch and communication. The childs wellness visitor can also help with the childs speech, language and communication. How when and why.A multi-agency team would be brought in to support a child when a speech, language or communication delay takes place. The director would have a meeting with the childs parent/carer to deal the issue and then they would discuss the best possible option for the child. If they decide that a multi-agency team is to be contacted then a meeting would be prepared with the team to examine how the child can be helped. They then will arrange with the team to examine how the child can be helped. They then will arrange the times and dates that they can come and visit the child either at the childcare setting or at home. scat opportunities.There are many types of play opportunities that can be put into place to help support a childs speech, language and communication. Role play is one of the most important parts of play for children, it covers physical activity as well as allowing the child to communicate, be creative, be item-by-item and build self-confidence. Another play opportunity could be music and movement activities which include singing, dancing and nursery rhymes.The children can be independent and make their own choices to join in. this allows children to communicate with each other and to sing along to the songs and rhymes. Reading stories are vital in a childs development. By reading and listening, children pick up new words and meanings which allow their knowledge to expand. If a child has a difficulty in communicating or in their speech then books can be very useful for developing their speech and communication. Show and tell is another way of supporting a childs speech, language and communication. It allows the children to listen to others and to communicate if they wish to by asking questions about the show and tell that is shown, which can expand their word dictionary by using new words. All of this concludes that notic ing a delay in a speech, language or communication development is important to prevent further delay in other areas of development.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Hrm – the Google Way

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT THE GOOGLE WAY SUBMITTED BY AKANSHA AGARWAL -100031 DEEPTI HORA 100016 GAZAL BABEL- 100011 PRIYAM MAHESHWARI-100055 ROHIT NAIR 100201 circumscribe Executive Summary3 Introduction4 Company Overview4 People Operations at Google4 (with the help of Harvard and Guest puts) Standard Recruitment and Selection10 Google India enrol Jam11 Recommendations11 References12 Appendix15 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT THE GOOGLE WAY In this objectify, we discuss the Human resource practices at Google Inc. They argon known as PEOPLE OPERATIONS headed by Laszlo Bock.Googlers(Google employees) range hard, and suffer romp too. The workforce is diversified with international communities, Gayglers (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender), and Greyglers (Googlers over 40 years). We have tried to use HRM Models such as The Harvard Model and The Guest Model which link the current HRM policies of Google with the theoretical aspect of HRM as a subject. The Har vard model throws fainthearted on aspects such as situational factors, stakeholders interest, HR prudence choices and decisions, their outcomes and consequences.Whereas the Guest Model throws light on aspects such as HRM practices like hiring, tuition, appraisals, relations, etc. and also aspects such as behavioural, financial and deed outcomes. In conformance with these models we saw that the success of Google lies in its open policy to accept the employees ideas. Google has been able to instil creativity and innovation among its employees. The next part of the project fuddles a gunpointed idea active the standard recruitment and selection carry out at Google offices both over the adult male including India.Google conducts the GLAT (Google Lab dexterity test) to see if the prospective employees argon compatible with the work milieu. Bringing to light techniques such as the GOOGLE INDIA law JAM, through which they hire the best techies from all across India to work for the association. Finally we have given recommendations wherein belongings in mind the draw O.K.s of some of its practices, we suggest corrective measures. INTRODUCTION This report identifies the current HRM policies of Google Inc. The company which had slight than 20 employees in 1998 now has over 20000 on its pay rolls.We have evaluated them against the Harvard and Guest model of HRM. excessively recruitment and selection procedures have been discussed. Some of them argon standard while some unusual last with a few recommendations. COMPANY OVERVIEW Google is one of the leading inter send away engineering and advertising companies in the world. It flagship harvest-home is its internet search engine. It also provides advertising ser criminalitys which is its main source of revenue. Google employees named GOOGLERS, which ar now approximately 20,000 in numbers. (Datamonitor 2010) PEOPLE OPERATONS AT GOOGLEThe HRM activities are classified on the basis of the parameters given by the HARVARD sham and the GUEST MODEL. Situational factors and Stakeholder interest of the Harvard model and HR practices and Outcomes of the Guest model have been identified w. r. t Google. (Bratton. J and Gold. J 2007) Refer to Appendix for diagrammatic representation. SITUATIONAL FACTORS Business strategy and conditions The mission is to gather the entire worlds data and make it accessible to everyone. At the company data is sacred. Employees are encouraged to component part out inferences from data and not feelings.It is believed that more data equals more knowledge and better decisions. (Hardy. Q 2005). Its informal corporate motto Dont be Evil, reminds Googlers that being ethical is essential. However this can be debated in view of its acceptance of filtering search results in China. Management philosophy The management believes that if any employee fails, his/her managers are to blame. (Sullivan. J 2007) Labour market The IT industry has a labour market with engine ers from Ivy League Schools (full- cartridge holderrs) as well as abbreviateors.Task technology The IT industry is highly dynamic and competitive and to thrive one mustiness continually innovate and delight the customers. Laws and societal values There have been instances where Googlers have taken the company to court for outstanding payment of salary and disabled accounts which could prove harmful to the company. (Google 2010) STAKEHOLDER INTEREST Management LASZLO BOCK, vice president of people operations, Google. A Chief Cultural Officer or Director of Human Resources is designated to assign the companys unique work farming.He is in charge of making sure that the companys values are adhered to. (Kuntze. R & Matulich. E, 2010) Community It gives back to society through its philanthropic wing which undertakes in-kind production donations, volunteering and charity. (Google 2011) HRM PRACTICES Hiring Due to the dynamic work environment the company hires people who are qu ick learners and innovative. (Sullivan. J 2007). The hiring process is quite long and difficult with tests, pre-interview screening and finally at least 4 rounds of interviews. Reward establishment Refer to Appendix TABLE 1 for Compensation of top 5 executives in Google.The Google infrastructure has mean solar day care and elder care centres, spa and hair salons, car wash and oil check facilities and everything else that technology obsessed person would need in terms of a benefits package. Employees must work for 70% of their workings hours and are entitled to unlimited sick leave, stock options and various other perquisites. (Logan. G 2008) WORK clay The employees have witness in three main areas human resource, business consulting with good problem-solving skills, statistics and psychology. (Anonymous 2008) Google has an informal value-added environment. The environment is creative, fun and relaxed.Individuality and innovation is encouraged. There is neither dress code nor formal daily contacts. TGIFs or periodical Friday meetings are held where questions can be posed to the co-founders also. Nooglers are given special treatment and made to experience the spirit of co-operation. The downside of such an environment is that Googlers show up late, dont pay attention, leave primal and keep messaging on their mobiles. 20% TIME. Simply put, employees get 1/5th of their snip to work on projects of their own choosing. This keeps employees challenged and at the same date provides good business opportunities for the company. Kuntze. R & Matulich. E, 2010). Hourly time isnt tracked so theres no way to know what percentage of time people are spending on side projects. The concept functions more as an attitude that pertly projects should be started anyone, not necessarily those at the top. Also giving time is of no use if the culture of the company does not support it. Training and Development Google sponsors lessons in foreign languages. Unique developmen t opportunities are provided to engineers. EngEDU, an engineering training group provides training classes and career development work to them.It is mandatory to undergo training and development sessions for a minimum of 120 hours/year. Google stresses development of the people through on-the- product line learning. It occurs through stalk departmental tech talks, reinvigorated mentors, etc. (Sullivan. J 2007) Appraisal Google says it puts a twist on 360-degree feedback by providing functionality for managers and employees to nominate peer reviewers from anywhere across the organization. Quarterly goals are set and carrying out evaluations are based on these the company aims for a 70 percent success rate. Anonymous 2008) traffic HR practices at Google are coined People Operations. Employee passion is maintained by limiting bureaucracy. Ideas which are unique are encouraged no publication where they came from. (Sullivan. J 2007) When many employees started to leave it formula ted a mathematical algorithm to look for unhappy Googlers. The idea was to get inside the employees head even onward they thought of leaving the company. However, it can be argued that it was a waste of funds. James Smither, a professor at La Salle University, Philadelphia, says that it doesnt make sense. No algorithm is any better than the data you feed it.And al about data about behaviour has questionable reliability. If we put in garbage the algorithm will give the same back. (Watson. T 2009) LONG TERM CONSEQUENCES Individual well-being Google allows employees to work on any project of their choice which boosts creative thought and instils job satisfaction. (Kuntze. R Matulich. E 2010). Career development and tutorial services are provided. ( Sullivan. J 2007) One way Google speeds development is through a yearlong base bivouac training initiative that features a combination of HR specialist training and MBA-like curriculum.Organisational effectiveness The Company was f it(p) fourth in Fortunes list of Americas most Admired Companies and showtime in the list of Best Companies to Work For. (Hansen. F 2008)and (Logan. G 2008) BEHAVIOURAL OUTCOMES Motivation The main factors of want in the company is the dynamic environment, quick decision making and a culture where ambitious ideas are not only encouraged but also accepted. (Sullivan. J 2007) Co-operation Googlers across levels and departments say that it doesnt matter if they are designing search engines or cooking meals for their colleagues, they feel that their work can change the world. (Salter.C et al. 2008) allegiance The thing about Google is that even after 12 years, it continues to instil a sense of creativity and aspiration within its employees and now has more than 20000. The freedom given to its workers infuses in them a sense of responsibility and province Are we taking advantage of what weve got here? they ask. Are we doing enough? Are we doing everything we can? (Salter. C et al. 2008) military operation OUTCOMES POSITIVE Productivity Matt Glotzbach(2008) PRODUCT MANAGEMENT DIRECTOR FOR GOOGLE ENTERPRISE Generally a new employee is requisite to fill out paperwork but at Google it is done electronically. I went to a staff meeting that afternoon and got assigned to figure out how Google could launch Enterprise applications for corporations in Europe. I was told to come back with the answer at the end of the week. It was like, Hey, New Guy, you dont know anything about our business yet, and you dont have any international experience, but here are some people who can help you. Go figure it out. We launched in Europe a few months later. Innovation 20% time. Simply put, employees get 1/5th of their time to work on projects of their own choosing.This keeps employees challenged and at the same time provides good business opportunities for the company. Google services that were all started as individual projects are Gmail, Google News, Orkut etc. (Kuntze . R & Matulich. E, 2010). NEGATIVE Turnover The Company had to raise the allowance by 10 % starting 2011 to reduce defection of workers who were looking for brighter pastures. With $33 billion in notes and a stock market capitalization of almost $180 billion, Google can afford to throw money and shares at its employees. Yet the significance of Googles across-the-board pay raise extends far beyond corporate competition. Farell. C 2010) Paul Buchheit, a Googler who coined Dont be evil is a founder, with three ex-Googlers, of a social-networking company called FriendFeed. Nathan Stoll, who managed Google News, is hard at work on his new company, Mechanical Zoo. Several top people have gone to Facebook, most notably Sheryl Sandberg, who ran Googles automated ad sales, and Elliot Schrage, who ran PR. (Lashinsky. A et al. 2008) FINANCIAL OUTCOMES Profits Google has matured very quickly in the last twelve years since its inception in 1998. The companys operating profit and net profit have increased to $8312. million and $6520. 4 million in 2009 respectively which is almost 25. 3% and 54. 3% as compared to the previous years. (Datamonitor 2010) STANDARD RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION The HR Technology and Operations Manager, genus Melissa Karp says that the fast pace with which Google is growing means that the senior managers have to spend 30% of their time in interviewing prospective employees. The company says every applicant goes through at least four rounds of interviews taken by direct line managers, potential peers and subordinates. Liane Hornsey apparently had to go through fourteen interviews before getting her job.Once selected and the contract signed, presents are given to the NOOGLER, his/her desk is decorated with balloons and an invitation is given to dine with his/her manager. This tough entry means that only the most talented and culturally compatible people are hired and firing of employees is less. There is not more than stress among people over bei ng thrown out. (Wright. A. D 2008) and(Dempsey. K 2007) Refer to Appendix AD for the hiring advertisement of Google. After anyone applies online in the company, it uses its applicant tracking system (ATS) to weigh in on applicants.Background information on education and work experience is collected and stored in the ATS. Then it is compared to data about quick Google employees and if there is a match, an e-mail is sent to ask the particular employee for internal references. Employees update the ATS by replying to this e-mail. Google uses its GOOGLE laboratory APTITUDE TEST (GLAT) which tries to measure his/her compatibility with its work environment. It is put in technology magazines and applicants hand it in accompany by their resume. It also serves to select those applicants who have the desired skills and mindset for the interview stage. (Willock.R 2007) GOOGLE INDIA CODE JAM The India reckon Jam is a contest where software writers are asked to write codes which can land them a job at Googles Research and Development Centre which otherwise is a long and difficult process. The quick writer also gets $6,900. It is a hunt to find the most shiny code writer in South and Southeast Asia. Their problem solving, designing and code writing skills are put to test. Finalists are required to create and test software and finally programme a war-based game. However this contest is so Gordian to complete that only the most brilliant code writers think of applying.Google has been unsuccessful in finding these brilliant engineers for its Indian office. According to insiders the Bangalore office wanted to hire 100 employees but their staffs has only 25 people. (Puliyenthuruthel. J 2005) RECOMMENDATIONS The work culture of Google is very motivating and challenging. The 20% time concept is a huge success. The perquisites offered are more than any employee hopes for. However, after studying the policies of Google and arguments of various third parties in favour or agains t them we have come up with a few suggestions for improvement. Employee turnover rate The number of employees leaving the company has been change magnitude in the last few years. Some of the cited reasons were low pay, bureaucracy and poor mentoring. We suggest that superiors pay more attention to employees and guide them wherever necessary. Also an environment that is fun may backfire. A balance between work and fun must be maintained. * Mathematical Algorithm James Smither, a professor of management at La Salle University in Philadelphia argues that the idea of the mathematical algorithm is very unrealistic as the behavioural data may or may not be accurate.Rather it is suggested that Googlers should be approached directly so as to know why they are dissatisfied. * It has a bad reputation for underpaying the employees, even though they are laborious to motivate them by providing stock options. Thus Google should see that the employees they hire are paid in accordance to the wo rk that they do and at the same time see that they are not dissatisfied. * Recruitment Google India statute Jam is an innovative way of recruiting people, but the only drawback is that it is a very difficult process.Thus measures should be taken to see that the process is neither too easy nor too difficult, so that the best talent is selected and at the same time it should not deter people from applying. REFERENCES 1. Kuntze R. , and Matulich E. , (2010). Google Searching for Value. Journal of Case Research in Business and Economics. people 2. Pp 2-7. online on tap(predicate) at - http//www. aabri. com/manuscripts/09429. pdf Accessed on 5 April 2011. 2. The Finest People, The Coolest Environment. Times Ascent HR Forum, Empowering Potential, New Delhi. eighteenth January 07. 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Pp 44. onlineAvailable at - http//web. ebscohost. com. ezproxy. lancs. c. uk/ehost/detail? vid=9hid=8sid=ed72b75c-a4b7-4a49-85f0-b26e67d8e6ff%40sessionmgr4bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3ddb=buhAN=50256392 Accessed on 2 April 2011. 10. Hansen. F (2008). TOP of the CLASS. Workforce Management. Volume 86(20). onlineAvailable at - http//web. ebscohost. com. ezproxy. lancs. ac. uk/ehost/detail? vid=11hid=8sid=ed72b75c-a4b7-4a49-85f0-b26e67d8e6ff%40sessionmgr4bd ata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3ddb=buhAN=33066193 Accessed on 2 April 2011. 11. Logan, G. ,(2008). Hiring Policy makes Google best place to work in UK Personnel Today, 3June. Online Available at http//web. ebscohost. com. ezproxy. lancs. ac. uk/ehost/detail? vid=15hid=8sid=ed72b75c-a4b7-4a49-85f0-b26e67d8e6ff%40sessionmgr4bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3ddb=buhAN=33066355 Accessed on 4 April 2011 12. Watson, T. ,(2009). A Google center field Canadian Business, 16 June. , Volume 82 (11), Online Available at http//web. ebscohost. com. ezproxy. lancs. ac. uk/ehost/detail? vid=17hid=8sid=ed72b75c-a4b7-4a49-85f0-b26e67d8e6ff%40sessionmgr4bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3ddb=buhAN=42208422 Accessed on 2 April 2011 3. Willock, R. ,(2007). Google makes the mind boggle with its recruitment challenges Personnel Today, 6 Feb. , Online Available at http//web. ebscohost. com. ezproxy. lancs. ac. uk/ehost/detail? vid=17hid=8sid=ed72b75c-a4b7-4a49-85f0-b26e67d8e6ff%40sessionmgr4bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWh vc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3ddb=buhAN=42208422 Accessed on 4 April 2011 14. Dempsey, K. ,(2007). charge more time in Hiring to spend less time firing Personnel Management, 6 Feb. , Online Available at http//web. ebscohost. com. ezproxy. lancs. ac. uk/ehost/detail? id=22hid=8sid=ed72b75c-a4b7-4a49-85f0-b26e67d8e6ff%40sessionmgr4bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3ddb=buhAN=24663216Accessed on 29 run into 2011 15. Farrell, C. , (2010). On pay raises, its Google or Bust Business week, 1 Dec. , Online Available at http//web. ebscohost. com. ezproxy. lancs. ac. uk/ehost/detail? vid=33hid=8sid=ed72b75c-a4b7-4a49-85f0-b26e67d8e6ff%40sessionmgr4bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3ddb=buhAN=55618496 Accessed on 3 April 2011 16. Hardy, Q. (2005). Google Thinks Small Forbes, 14 Nov. ,Volume 176 (10), OnlineAvailable at http//web. bscohost. com. ezproxy. lancs. ac. uk/ehost/detail? vid=30hid=8sid=ed72b75c-a4b7-4a49-85f0-b26e67d8e6ff%40sessionmgr4bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3ddb=buhAN=18728217 Accessed on 1 April 2011 17. Puliyenthuruthel, J. ,(2005). How Google Searches-For Talent Business week, 11 April, Issue 3928. Online Available athttp//web. ebscohost. com. ezproxy. lancs. ac. uk/ehost/detail? vid=28hid=8sid=ed72b75c-a4b7-4a49-85f0-b26e67d8e6ff%40sessionmgr4bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3ddb=buhAN=16599813 Accessed on 1 April 2011 18. Salter, C. , et al. (2008).Google The Faces and Voices of the worlds most Innovative company Fast Company, March, Issue 123. OnlineAvailable at http//web. ebscohost. com. ezproxy. lancs. ac. uk/ehost/detail? vid=26hid=8sid=ed72b75c-a4b7-4a49-85f0-b26e67d8e6ff%40sessionmgr4bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3ddb=buhAN=29959444Accessed on 5 April 2011 19. Lashinsky, A. , et al. (2008). Where Does Google Go Next? Fortune, 26 May,Volume 157 (11). Online Available athttp//web. ebscohost. com. ezproxy. lancs. ac. uk/ehost/detail? vid=24hid=8sid=ed72b75c-a4b7-4a49-85f0-b26e67d8e6ff%40sessionmgr4bd