Sunday, May 19, 2019
Theories of development are important Essay
A theorist is a person who bring ons or believes an idea in which to explain something, including what, how and wherefore. Theories argon culture done observations, analy utter and experiments. Theories of knowledge ar important because they answer us to understand churlrens behaviour, to help us understand the sequence that churlren and young people develop. Theorists- influencing current practice.Cognitive development.A Swiss livelihood scientist and psychologist jean pi durationt (1896-1980) is renowned for constructing a highly influential model of minor development and victimizeing. He suggested that fryren develop cognitive skills through mental maps, schemes and network concepts for understanding and responding to physical experiences within his or hers environment. Piagets theory identifies tetrad developments stages these four stages ar, sensorimotor stage 0-2 years, preoperational stage 2-7 years, concrete operations 7-11 years, formal operations 11-15 years. Educators must political platform activities that are developmentally appropriate according to the curriculum which expands the students logical and conceptual growth. some other theorist that gives cognitive development is Vygotsky. He believes that pip-squeakren learn and understand through others around them, such as fri curiositys and family. He believed that children need challenges and teaching experiences set for them to help them develop in all areas and to help them to procure their full potential.Psychoanalytical development.Sigmund freud (1856-1939) another theorist believed that there are 3 move to each child and young persons personality. He believed that there are the ID, the ego and the super ego. He believed that these 3 parts arent almodal values there from when the child is born exactly develop with the child as they grow. He said that they are unalike through certain factors and behaviour between each diverse child,Humanist.Abraham maslow (1908-1970) look ed at peoples motivation in the 1940s. He believed that people needed to abide their fundamental needs forrader they could meet their potential or self-actualisation. He believed that if they were not met then they would become a deficiency in the person. This links to practice because we need to meet the needs of the children for, warmth, care, hunger and environment that they are providing and what they do to meet the childrens needs.Social tuition.Social learning theorists believe that we learn through observing others. Albert bandura born 1925 believes that we learn through imitation. Eric Erikson (1902-1994) believed that a child and a young persons personality forget change throughout their life, due to social development and experiences. This links to practice as greenhouse practiti superstarrs are told to be good role models to the children. This is because they observe us and copy or imitate actions that we whitethorn make.operant conditioning.The theory of operant co nditioning is based on learning from the consequences or reinforcement due to a type of behaviour. B.F skinner (1904-1990) is recognised as a key figure for developing the behaviourist approach path to learning and developing the theory for operant conditioning. He believed that we learn through our experiences in the environment and the consequences to our behaviour. mule skinner separated the sequence of actions into three groups 1 positive reinforces2 prejudicious reinforces3 punishers.The positive reinforcers are what make us repeat actions or behaviour when we get something we desire. Skinner suggested that the positive reinforcement was the roughly yieldive way of encouraging new learning, such as getting attention from adults, receiving praise and receiving rewards. The negative reinforcers is a behaviour that similarly makes us repeat actions or behaviour, but not in a bad way but in a way to impede something bad happening from something good. For warning children whi tethorn learn to hold onto the stair rail when walk of life down the stairs to steady them self rather than hearting the need to sit on their bottom and bump down them. The punisher is what is going to stop people from repeating behaviour, such as checking the temperature of the bath water before getting in it, later burning yourself because you didnt check.Skinner also researched un judge positive reinforcers. This is when children generate negative behaviour to fill attention from adults. He proved that screening more frequent positive reinforcement was the most boom way to help children learn about accept adapted behaviour. This links to practice because we reward and praise children for showing positive behaviour. Nursery practitioners often say well done to children as a way of assess them for showing positive behaviour than their negative behaviour. We also try to focus more on childrens positive behaviour rather than their negative behaviour, this is because they even tually learn that their good behaviour is more spy and praised than their bad behaviour. This proves skinners theory.Behaviourist. The behaviourist theories suggest that learning is influenced by rewards, punishments and environmental factors. conditioning is often used by behaviourists because we learn in a certain way due to past experiences that teach us not to do something or to do something. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) was a physiologist who was studying dogs. Whilst doing this he recognised that the dogs started to salivate before their fare had been put down for them. He came to the conclusion that they were doing this because they learnt to fellow traveller the arrival of the food with other things such as, the salubrious of footsteps and the bowls or buckets. He did and experiment to look at this more closely. He used a bell because dogs do not salivate when hearing a bell. The dogs eventually begun to associate the bell with been fed.He then rang the bell constantly and ev entually the dogs begin to stop salivating and finally did not react to the unspoiled of the bell. Behaviourists use the term extinction when this happens. John b.watson (1878-1958 Took up pavlovs work and demonstrated that children and adults stinkpot be Hellenicly conditioned. In an experiment he created a phobia of rats in a little boy know as little Albert.In our practice we do not experiment or use classical conditioning, although we may recognise it among the children for example, children may become excited when they see bowls or a tray been brought into the room, they may associate this with food being effrontery to them after this happens. Another example would be that at the end of the day all the children put their coats on they then may anticipate home time because they associate putting their coats on with their parents arriving to take them home. It is also effective to remember that classical conditioning bathroom contact to childrens phobias. Social pedagogy.S ocial pedagogy is the holistic and thoughtful way of working. The aim of this is to improve the life chances and social outcomes of babies and children, therefore we must work with each other as well as the children to limit the best possible way of improving these outcomes. The theories of development that have been shown help childcare workers put unitedly framework and education for the children. It also helps us to understand why babies, children and young people do things the way they do. Conclusion.This shows that theorists have helped us come to conclusions for why we do things the way we do as well as how we learn through our experiences. It also helps to understand these theories so that we shadower provide better care and association in the childcare setting.Task c. introduction pack for a new staff member. At the go goose pre-school we monitor each childs development we do this by using the learning journey. In the childrens learning journey we have primaeval learni ng goals for each specific age group, to march on us guidelines or the norm development for each stage of their time at the setting. We also carry out observations on the children to show which stage they are at, at the time on the earlier learning goals.Before any observations take place on the children, per get awayion must be given from the parent/carer, this is also helpful as we can share findings with the childs parent/carer and they can share findings with ourselves. If we were to do observations on a child without consent from their parent/carer then they may feel angry and upset as they may not understand that this is normal practice and help us to help the children. Assessment methods.Here are two examples of assessment methods we use to monitor a childs development checklist/tick chart and a free description with a snap opaline prospect. A checklist and tick chart observation is a chart with particular activities written on and the child is observed to see if they can reach the milestones set according to the childs age. These observations are unremarkably taken place when structured activities are set up for the children to do and are based oer a longer period of time, but are taken place less frequently to show the progress in the childrens development. The advantage of using this observation is that you can observe more than one child at a time and they are quick and easy to use.The disadvantage of this is that observing at different times may produce different results and that it only shows what the child can and cannot do, not how overconfident and happy they are to attempt tasks and join in. A free description with a snap dead reckoning picture is to show skills that children show or are seen doing. A description of what you see is written into a small observation sheet and put the childs learning journey next to the picture of them doing so. These observations are used frequently to show what milestones the child is at for their age gr oup. The observation has the advantage of been able to use it frequently and no preparation is needed. Although the advantage is that different observers pick up on different things that children do and it can be hard sometimes to find the right words to use to outline what you are seeing. Examples of why sometimes child/young persons development does not comprise the evaluate pattern.Children develop at different stages for example, a baby of 12 months may be walking with support but a baby of 10 months may be walking unaided. Some children well(p) happen to develop quicker or slower than others, but for some babies and children there are reasons why their development does not follow the expected patterns. Premature birth can have an effect on development, such as sitting up unaided, crawling, standing and walking. Learning difficulties can also have an mend on development, some children may pick up writing and study easier than with a learning impediment, but help is availa ble such as special support and multi-agency approaches. Another reason why development may be delayed could be disability for example, a baby that has a disability with their legs may not be able to walk until they are 2 or 3 where as the expected age is roughly 1 years old.Impact by disability.Disability can impact and effect development as it can prevent children and young people from completing tasks. Although most activities can be adapted to suit children and young peoples needs. Intervention.Intervention can be done to win positive outcomes for the child or young person where development is not following the expected pattern. specialiser support can be used in the preschool to support children with learning difficulties or disabilities. They can range confluxs to come and see the child to observe them and give the childs key worker activities and goals for the child to meet. Multi agency approaches can also take place to help babies, children and young people to meet the e xpected pattern of development. Another intervention could be supported play by adapting the activities to support the child or young person to reach the milestones for their age group. Task d .Early identification.Early identification of speech, lecture or communication delay is important for a childs well-being because it can affect their development. The sooner it is picked up on the sooner it can be amended therefore the child will not miss out on educational activities and lessons which would otherwise potentially hold them further back. Potential risks.Any delays in a childs speech, language and communication could result in a lack of development in the future. They may not be able to develop their skills further for example, if a child cannot sing then communication will also become a problem. This is why it is important to identify these delays advance(prenominal). If a child cannot speak then their development will slow down as they cannot further their skills through ot hers around them. This can therefore cause the problem to become greater if it is left to long. Importance of primal identification and potential risks of late recognition.It is very important that early identification to speech, language and communication as it can affect children and young peoples further development and expanding skills. If it is picked up on early enough then help can be given to the child to either overcome the swerve or to give extra support to them to help them develop further. If it isnt picked up on early enough then the childcould fall behind in development and education. When a child locomote behind it can sometimes be difficult for them to catch up although there are organisations to give extra support to the child. Multi-agency team.There are many organisations that can help support a child or young persons speech, language and communication. The childs GP (general practitioner) can indicate the child to a speech therapist which will help their spee ch and communication. The childs wellness visitor can also help with the childs speech, language and communication. How when and why.A multi-agency team would be brought in to support a child when a speech, language or communication delay takes place. The director would have a meeting with the childs parent/carer to deal the issue and then they would discuss the best possible option for the child. If they decide that a multi-agency team is to be contacted then a meeting would be prepared with the team to examine how the child can be helped. They then will arrange with the team to examine how the child can be helped. They then will arrange the times and dates that they can come and visit the child either at the childcare setting or at home. scat opportunities.There are many types of play opportunities that can be put into place to help support a childs speech, language and communication. Role play is one of the most important parts of play for children, it covers physical activity as well as allowing the child to communicate, be creative, be item-by-item and build self-confidence. Another play opportunity could be music and movement activities which include singing, dancing and nursery rhymes.The children can be independent and make their own choices to join in. this allows children to communicate with each other and to sing along to the songs and rhymes. Reading stories are vital in a childs development. By reading and listening, children pick up new words and meanings which allow their knowledge to expand. If a child has a difficulty in communicating or in their speech then books can be very useful for developing their speech and communication. Show and tell is another way of supporting a childs speech, language and communication. It allows the children to listen to others and to communicate if they wish to by asking questions about the show and tell that is shown, which can expand their word dictionary by using new words. All of this concludes that notic ing a delay in a speech, language or communication development is important to prevent further delay in other areas of development.