Wednesday, May 22, 2019
The main aim of hazard management should be to reduce the effects of hazards, not manage their cause
Hazard oversight ultimately quarrys to reduce the risk that a judge privy bring to humans. This can be done through the four steps of modifying the cause, event, vulnerability and loss. I believe that the cause of many indispensable threatens, such as geophysical and meteorologic hazards cannot encumbered, thus the circumspection of the cause of a hazard is irrelevant in the management of many hazards. As such, it should be the case that the main aim of hazard management should be to reduce the pictures of hazards rather than manage their cause.The issue of trim back the effect of hazards would be discussed in the four parts of the hazard management framework. I agree with the statement to a large extent that hazard management should not be centered on managing the cause. The few ways in which the cause of the hazard can be modified will be discussed. Although the most ideal method would be to prevent the occurrence of the event in the first place, to stop a hazard from occ urring entirely is a feat that usually would be only be feasible in terms of gloomy scale, isolated phenomena, taking the example of a flood.Floods are examples of small scale hazards that can be prevented through technological means. Often, levees can be built to prevent a river from overf lowing, such as the levees built along the Mississippi River in North America, or the Scheldt River in the Netherlands. Also, occludes can be built to retain piddle in a lake, and can be used to control the water flow, thus preventing rivers from overflowing too quickly. A expert example of a dam that has prevented repeated flooding occurrence is the Hoover Dam along the Colorado River.It is recorded that before the building of the dam, there was frequent flooding at the low lying areas of the river during spring. While physical methods can be employed to prevent the occurrence of these isolated hazards like floods and landslides, large scale hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis and swerve storms cannot be prevented. As such, modification of the cause is highly limited to a few hazards, thus making it to a greater extent feasible to consider other approaches in reducing the effects of the majority of hazards which will almost inevitably occur.While technology cannot be used to prevent the causes of all hazards, technology can withal be used to modify the event. Earthquakes is a good example of a hazard where the earthquake itself does not usually cause the loss of lives, rather, it is usually its effect on other structures that causes the most destruction, such as the toppling of buildings or causing landslides. As such, a good method of earthquake management would be to garb buildings with the ability to withstand the impact of earthquakes, using various architectural designs.A famous example of an earthquake resistant building is Taipei 101, which foundation is reenforce 80 metres deep into the ground and has a steel ball known as a tuned mass damper which balanc es the building. During its construction in 2002, Taipei undergo a 6. 8 magnitude earthquake, and yet the skyscraper did not topple and experienced no structural damages. Sometimes, such as in certain Japanese home base designs, the houses are not built to withstand earthquakes but such that it moves along with the earthquake, using grooves rather than nails to fit the house together.Furthermore, the light wood has lower fortune of killing people if it topples. These different designs show how it is likely to use knowledge of engineering and architecture to reduce the impact of hazards. Modifying vulnerability is another approach to hazard management which aims to increase zeal of people themselves to tackle the hazard when it occur, including methods such as increasing community preparedness, planning, developing warning systems, and changing perceptions.Community preparedness is essential in all communities where hazard occurrence is frequent, to train and educate people as t o how to respond to a hazard and drawing out reasoning by elimination plans, and stocking up emergency supplies of food, water and medicine. Also, people can be trained in first aid, search and rescue, and firefighting, etc. In some cases, this is much more feasible than using technology, when the cost is too high. A case study of Norway, where avalanches are frequent, is a good example.Due to the fact that neither relocation nor retrofitting buildings was a feasible option, the most cost effective plan would be to decrease vulnerability. This was done mainly through setting up a warning system, and overture up with a plan to organize an elimination, by appointing a group of representatives from each community and training the people on how to react. The plan was highly successful, covering the merit in proper planning and preparedness.In many ways the perception and awareness of the community to hazards is very important. Changing the perception of people is too essential in r educing the impacts of hazards, for negative perception by a group of people can ultimately data track many deaths, in cases where communities, peculiarly in LEDCs, are resigned to the fact that no amour can be done to prevent hazard occurrence and that hazards are unavoidable and look upon them as a way of life. Even in MEDCs, perceptions can cause problems.There is a case where, during the evacuation for Hurricane Katrina, some of the elderly did not want evacuate, because of fear of newfound living conditions, or that they do not want to leave their home. This contributed to the majority of the deaths being the elderly in these events. Thus, changing the perceptions of various peoples in different heathen contexts plays a large role in hazard management, ensuring that the community would want to pen themselves in the first place. In all, modifying vulnerability can ultimately lead to people knowing how to react to hazards and thus reduces the negative effects of them.In many cases, managing the cause of natural hazards whitethorn bring certain disadvantages, for most natural hazards, while posing a threat to humans, are actually only natural phenomenon, and at times have benefits to us and the environment. A very good example is the case of a flood, where people have tried to create physical barriers to contain the flood water such as levees and dams. While this may be applicable to MEDCs, for many agricultural communities, such an approach is inapplicable, for they depend on the floodplain where there is a high amount of nutrients, deposited by flooding, and supplying of water.In these contexts, such as in Bangladesh, where the people depend on these floods, the prevention of the hazard would uproot their way of life. In this way, floods need not forever be treated as negative phenomena, causing damage in only certain contexts. In my opinion, modifying the vulnerability, not the cause should be the main aim of hazard management. This holds since th ere are two factors contributing to risk hazard and vulnerability. Since eliminating the hazard is totally unfeasible in many large-scale hazards, the best thing to manage should be human vulnerability.Since the main aim should be centered on that can be applicable to all communities, it should be something feasible in contexts where there is lack of economic and technological resources, thus ruling out modifying the event as a potential main aim. As such, hazard management should not be centered on technology, such as the retrofitting of buildings, but rather something like education, which is more cost effective. In all, the main aim should be to increase the resilience of the people themselves to tackle the hazard.For example, in the case of Bangladesh, people adapt to the floods and learn to use it to their own benefit, neither seeing it as a negative phenomenon, nor something they should fear. After changing any negative perceptions of hazards in communities, community prepared ness is essential. A bottom up approach equips people with the ability to save their own lives rather than being dependant on others. In fact, it has been shown that this approach works much better than international aid or rescuers from the military.For example, the rescue efforts to the floods in Mozambique in 2001 was a success, not because of anything else, but more of the fact that the people were trained in how to respond, and that there was a clearly drawn out evacuation plan and appointed leaders in the community. Mozambique, though being one of the poorest countries in the world, has managed to increase community preparedness, thus showing how this approach to hazard management, may just be the most universal method of tackling hazards, which works regardless of affluence.In conclusion, it is true that hazard management should be primarily about reacting to the hazards and reducing the damage it brings, rather than trying to prevent it. Still, as technology continues to dev elop, we cannot eliminate it as an essential part of hazard management, for what may not be possible to prevent now, may be in the future. So, both sides of the equation must be considered to tackle risk effectively, depending on the context.