Monday, July 22, 2019

Greek Philosophy Essay Example for Free

Greek Philosophy Essay What Is Philosophy? †¢Philosophy : The studies of Greco-Roman thinkers on activities and inquiries. It is also the rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct. †¢Philosophy focuses on three main types: †¢Stoicism †¢Skepticism †¢Epicurean †¢Philosophy consists of these philosophical areas: †¢Metaphysics †¢Materialism †¢Idealism †¢Epistemology †¢Empiricism †¢Rationalism †¢Ethics †¢Hedonism †¢Cynicism Three Main Types Stoicism †¢Refers to the knowledge of Aristotle oMind is a blank state, impressions are made by the 5 senses. †¢Stoics deny the metaphysical points of view. oReal objects produce intense feelings. oThe body and soul are pairs that act and react to each other. Skepticism †¢Examines as to what someone should believe- derived from Platos schooling †¢Objections on skepticism: oIts commitment to knowledgeable limitation is nonexistent. oIf knowledge is limited and judgment is not expressed, life is presumed unlivable. Epicurean †¢Formulated by Epicurus who believed philosophy was studied to make the soul happy. †¢Happiness created with less wanting of materialistic things and more peace. Philosophical Areas Metaphysics †¢Branch of philosophy accountable for the study of existence. oAnswers what is? †¢The foundation of philosophy oWithout metaphysics, we would not be able to comprehend the world or act accordingly to it. Materialism †¢Refers to the simple focus of the material world. oEverything in the universe is matter and matters. †¢The philosophy is held by those who believed that material items are accountable for existence. Idealism †¢Stresses the central ideal and spiritual interpretations of experiences. oThey believe world exists as a spirit †¢Two forms: oMetaphysical idealism oEpistemological idealism Epistemology †¢The investigation of grounds and nature of knowledge of the world. oFocuses on the knowledge of differences between truths and falsehood. †¢Fundamental aspect to how we think. Empiricism †¢Theory of experience as primary source to our knowledge of the world. oLearning through perception. †¢Classical empiricism oRejection of innate, in-born knowledge and concepts †¢Radical empiricism oExplains that all our knowledge is derived from our senses. †¢Moderate empiricism oDescribes the exceptions to general empiristic rules. Rationalism †¢Philosophical movement that introduced mathematical methods to philosophy. oCan be understood through mathematical and logical  principles, not sensory experiences. Ethics †¢Branch of philosophy dealing with what is the proper action for humans. oAnswers What do I do? †¢Requirement for human life, decides course of action. Hedonism †¢Doctrine that states that all pleasure is naturally acceptable- good for the soul. †¢Nothing but pleasure is good. Cynicism †¢Described as a way of life, which consists of asceticism, anti-conformism, and anti-conventionalism. †¢Basis of cynicism is the virtue of well being and a happy life. Philosophers Socrates †¢Possibly the wisest sage of all time †¢Contributions to philosophy: oPithy sayings. oSocratic method of discussion oSocratic irony oSocratic method- saying he knows nothing and that unexamined life is not worth living †¢Participated in the military during the Peloponnesian War. oCommitted suicide by ingesting poison hemlock. Plato Fun fact: Plato is not his original name- its Aristocles, but was later changed to Plato by his teachers †¢Considered the most important philosopher to have ever lived- father of Idealism. †¢Thought the human soul contained reason, spirit, and appetite. †¢Student and follower of Socrates. †¢Impacted math, science, morals, and political theories with his  Legacy of the Academy schooling. Aristotle †¢Student of Plato, teacher of Alexander the Great. †¢Wrote on logic, nature, psychology, ethics, politics, and art. †¢Developed deductive reasoning. †¢Basis: Aristotles syllogism †¢Church used Aristotle to explain doctrines in the Middle Ages. Concept of Prime Element †¢Thales Attempted to find naturalistic explanations of the world; identified water as the ultimate principle. †¢Pythagoras Creator of Pythagorean Theorem; believed earth was what encompassed all beings. †¢Anaximenes Explained how air was universally present and is the source of all that exists. †¢Heraclitus Disagreed with aforementioned philosophers and claimed fire was the classical element. †¢Empedocles Created the cosmogenic theory that composed of the four classical elements: water, earth, fire, and air. Bibliography †¢http://www. philosophybasics. com/movements_rationalism. html †¢http://www. importanceofphilosophy. com/Ethics_Main. html †¢http://philosophy. lander. edu/ethics/hedonism. html †¢http://dictionary. reference. com/browse/philosophy%20? s=t †¢http://ancienthistory. about. com/cs/people/p/aristotle. htm †¢http://ancienthistory. about. com/od/platoprofile/p/Plato. htm †¢http://ancienthistory. about. com/od/socratesbio/p/Socrates. htm †¢http://www. historyforkids. org/learn/greeks/philosophy/ †¢http://webspace. ship. edu/cgboer/athenians. html †¢http://webspace. ship. edu/cgboer/greeks. html †¢http://philosophy. gr/ †¢http://philosophy. gr/hellinistic/cynics. htm †¢http://www. newworldencyclopedia. org/entry/Greek_philosophy,_A ncient †¢http://www. livius. org/gi-gr/greeks/philosophers. html †¢http://www. historyforkids. org/learn/greeks/philosophy/ †¢http://www. historyforkids. org/learn/philosophy/epicureans. htm †¢http://www. iep. utm. edu/stoicmind/ †¢http://www. iep. utm. edu/skepanci/.

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